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Entrepreneurship and Independent Professionals: Why do Professionals not meet with Stereotypes of Entrepreneurship?

Author

Listed:
  • Bögenhold, Dieter
  • Heinonen, Jarna
  • Akola, Elisa

Abstract

The study discusses myths of entrepreneurship by looking at the overlapping areas of entrepreneurship, self-employment and professions. The study argues that professions are part of the category of self-employment. Additionally, the study presents empirical findings drawn from a unique empirical data set from Finland: a survey (N=733) including freelance journalists, translators, interpreters and artists at the blurred boundaries between waged work and entrepreneurship. Findings reveal that the professions are clearly different and the manifestations of entrepreneurship vary, reflecting the work and the labour market situation within the profession. The life and work situations of those in the liberal professions cannot be interpreted in simple black and white schemes or as winners and looser. Instead, many different socio-economic situations can be found ‘in between’, which are driven by different social logics. For entrepreneurship researchers the study opens up new avenues by taking us beyond the push-pull-dichotomy, which over-simplifies the decision to enter self-employment. The term entrepreneurship is often used in an undifferentiated way, and it therefore easily generates myths and stereotypes, which are challenged by the study. A narrower and more realistic view shows that there are diverse agents under the flag of entrepreneurship, who are usually not regarded as core entrepreneurs although they exist in everyday life.

Suggested Citation

  • Bögenhold, Dieter & Heinonen, Jarna & Akola, Elisa, 2013. "Entrepreneurship and Independent Professionals: Why do Professionals not meet with Stereotypes of Entrepreneurship?," MPRA Paper 51529, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:51529
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/51529/1/IfS_DP_04_2013_Boegenhold_Heinonen_Akola_FINAL.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Marco Cagetti & Mariacristina De Nardi, 2006. "Entrepreneurship, Frictions, and Wealth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 114(5), pages 835-870, October.
    2. André van Stel & Ingrid Verheul, 2007. "Entrepreneurial diversity and economic growth," Scales Research Reports H200701, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    3. John O. Ogbor, 2000. "Mythicizing and Reification in Entrepreneurial Discourse: Ideology-Critique of Entrepreneurial Studies," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(5), pages 605-635, July.
    4. C. Praag & Peter Versloot, 2007. "What is the value of entrepreneurship? A review of recent research," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 351-382, December.
    5. David Audretsch, 2009. "The entrepreneurial society," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 245-254, June.
    6. Erik Stam, 2008. "Entrepreneurship and Innovation Policy," Jena Economic Research Papers 2008-006, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    7. Jean Bonnet & Domingo García Pérez-De-Lema & Howard Van Auken, 2010. "The Entrepreneurial society: how to fill the gap between knowledge and innovation," Post-Print halshs-00555032, HAL.
    8. Mark Sanders, 2007. "Scientific Paradigms, Entrepreneurial Opportunities and Cycles in Economic Growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 339-354, April.
    9. Bögenhold Dieter & Fachinger Uwe, 2011. "Entrepreneurial Diversity: Theoretische und empirische Beleuchtungen der Heterogenität beruflicher Selbständigkeit in Deutschland," ZfKE – Zeitschrift für KMU und Entrepreneurship, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 59(4), pages 251-272.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurship; Professions; Self-employment; Occupational Careers; Waged Work; Transitions; Labour Market;

    JEL classification:

    • A14 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Sociology of Economics

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