Weibliche Solo-Selbstständigkeit zwischen Notwendigkeit und Innovationsherausforderung: Beobachtungen über Geschlecht und Unternehmertum in Deutschland
[Female Solo-Self-Employment Between Necessity and Innovation Challenge: Observations on Gender and Entrepreneurship in Germany]
The paper combines conceptual thoughts on the development of self-employment within stratified modern societies with empirical reflections based on public census data for Germany. Talk about the rise and future of self-employment must be linked to the discussion about changes in the structure of occupations, labour markets and regulations. The more or less steady increase of the service sector as well as the continuous rise of the liberal professions mirror changes within the category of self-employment. All different items are embedded into a general trend of a growing knowledge society. A fundamental question is how gender matters when investigating these trends. Do we find specific “gender patterns” within recent developments of an increasing expansion of self-employment e.g. in Germany, or will the new chances and risks lead to a greater equality of opportunities? Is the increase of solo-self-employment of females driven by the need to earn a living, or is it the result of females taking the risk e.g. to become more economically independent? Prima facie, we learn to acknowledge that the rise of self-employment is mostly supported by the rise of micro-firms and solo-self-employment, of which especially solo-self-employment is a female domain. The independent liberal professions also indicate a significant revival of female labour. The research tries to delve deeper into the different segments of the employment system and to connect empirical findings with the theoretical discussion on professional groups in modern capitalist societies. One basic question is whether female solo-self-employment is primarily driven by necessity in order to take part in the labour market or if those emerging activities reflect new innovative modes of labour market integration and reveal new opportunities and markets which are, in wide parts, especially due to the development of the service and health care sector.
|Date of creation:||2013|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Rosalie L Tung & Alain Verbeke, 2010. "Beyond Hofstede and GLOBE: Improving the quality of cross-cultural research," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 41(8), pages 1259-1274, October.
- André van Stel & Ingrid Verheul, 2007.
"Entrepreneurial diversity and economic growth,"
Scales Research Reports
H200701, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- Verheul, I. & van Stel, A.J., 2007. "Entrepreneurial Diversity and Economic Growth," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2007-070-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
- Maria Minniti, 2010. "Female Entrepreneurship and Economic Activity," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 22(3), pages 294-312, July.
- David Audretsch, 2009. "The entrepreneurial society," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 245-254, June.
- Audretsch, David B., 2007. "The Entrepreneurial Society," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195183504.
- Jean Bonnet & Marcus Dejardin & Antonia Madrid-Guijarro, 2012. "Toward the Entrepreneurial Society," Economics Working Paper Archive (University of Rennes 1 & University of Caen) 201231, Center for Research in Economics and Management (CREM), University of Rennes 1, University of Caen and CNRS.
- Alessandra Casarico & Paola Profeta & Chiara Pronzato, 2011. "Great Expectations: The Determinants of Female University Enrolment in Europe," CESifo Working Paper Series 3406, CESifo Group Munich.
- Alessandra Casarico & Paola Profeta & Chiara Pronzato, 2011. "Great expectations: The determinants of female university enrolment in Europe," Working Papers 044, "Carlo F. Dondena" Centre for Research on Social Dynamics (DONDENA), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi.
- F. van Es & D. J. van Vuuren, 2011. "A decomposition of the growth in self-employment," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(17), pages 1665-1669.
- Thomas Leoni & Martin Falk, 2010. "Gender and field of study as determinants of self-employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 167-185, February.
- Yannis Georgellis & Howard Wall, 2005. "Gender differences in self-employment," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-342.
- Yannis Georgellis & Howard J. Wall, 2004. "Gender differences in self-employment," Working Papers 1999-008, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy & Grilo, Isabel & van der Zwan, Peter, 2012. "Explaining preferences and actual involvement in self-employment: Gender and the entrepreneurial personality," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 325-341.
- Jean Bonnet & Domingo García Pérez-De-Lema & Howard Van Auken, 2010. "The Entrepreneurial society: how to fill the gap between knowledge and innovation," Post-Print halshs-00555032, HAL.
- Martin Binder & Alex Coad, 2013. "Life satisfaction and self-employment: a matching approach," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(4), pages 1009-1033, May.
- Martin Binder & Alex Coad, 2010. "Life satisfaction and self-employment: A matching approach," SPRU Working Paper Series 194, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex.
- Martin Binder & Alex Coad, 2010. "Life satisfaction and self-employment: A matching approach," Papers on Economics and Evolution 2010-20, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
- Bögenhold, Dieter & Fachinger, Uwe, 2010. "How Diverse is Entrepreneurship? Observations on the social heterogeneity of self-employment in Germany," MPRA Paper 23271, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Andersson, Pernilla, 2008. "Happiness and health: Well-being among the self-employed," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 213-236, February.
- Aidis, Ruta & Wetzels, Cécile, 2007. "Self-Employment and Parenthood: Exploring the Impact of Partners, Children and Gender," IZA Discussion Papers 2813, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Zoltan Acs & Sameeksha Desai & Jolanda Hessels, 2008. "Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 219-234, October.
- Bögenhold Dieter & Fachinger Uwe, 2011. "Entrepreneurial Diversity: Theoretische und empirische Beleuchtungen der Heterogenität beruflicher Selbständigkeit in Deutschland," ZfKE – Zeitschrift für KMU und Entrepreneurship, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 59(4), pages 251-272.
- Markus Poschke, 2013. "‘Entrepreneurs out of necessity’: a snapshot," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(7), pages 658-663, May.
- Poschke, Markus, 2010. ""Entrepreneurs out of Necessity": A Snapshot," IZA Discussion Papers 4893, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Clain, Suzanne Heller, 2000. "Gender differences in full-time self-employment," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(6), pages 499-513. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:51460. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.