How Diverse is Entrepreneurship? Observations on the social heterogeneity of self-employment in Germany
The discussion on entrepreneurship often treats entrepreneurs as agents of ideas of economic change and growth. Entrepreneurs are considered to serve as potential multipliers delivering individual and social wealth and prosperity. In that context entrepreneurship has been treated as a rather homogenous category, internal differences were not in the focus of academic talk. In public policy discourse entrepreneurship and the labour market category of self-employment are often used interchangeably. Images and interpretation of self-employment are mostly based on comparison of self-employment with other categories of wage or salary dependent labour market groups. This way self-employed people prove to become an averaged one-type figure. The proposed paper wants to highlight the other side of economic and social reality: the heterogeneity of self-employment. Referring to empirical data for the case of Germany the argumentation intends to illuminate different levels of social and economic integration of self-employed people. Working parameters and firm sizes, economic sectors of activity, income patterns, working hours and biographies have diversified and became increasingly heterogeneous so that further discussion is ultimately provoked: Which entrepreneurship are we talking about when talking entrepreneurship? Where are links between different fractions of the category of self-employment compared to each other and to other socio-economic groups? The contribution must be regarded as a theoretical and empirical task to connect entrepreneurship with debate on innovation, culture and finance.
|Date of creation:||May 2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Erik Stam, 2008.
"Entrepreneurship and Innovation Policy,"
Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG)
0807, Utrecht University, Section of Economic Geography, revised Apr 2008.
- Oded_Galor, 2004.
"From Stagnation to Growth:Unified Growth Theory,"
2004-15, Brown University, Department of Economics.
- Block, Joern & Wagner, Marcus, 2006.
"Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs in Germany: Characteristics and Earnings Differentials,"
610, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Joern H. Block & Marcus Wagner, 2010. "Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs in Germany: Characteristics and Earning s Differentials," Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr), LMU Munich School of Management, vol. 62(2), pages 154-174, April.
- Sarah Brown & Lisa Farrell & Mark N Harris, 2008.
"Modelling the Incidence of Self-Employment: Individual and Employment Type Heterogeneity,"
2008010, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics, revised Sep 2008.
- Sarah Brown & Lisa Farrell & Mark N. Harris, 2011. "Modeling The Incidence Of Self‐Employment: Individual And Employment Type Heterogeneity," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 29(4), pages 605-619, October.
- Bjørn Asheim & Lars Coenen & Jan Vang, 2007. "Face-to-face, buzz, and knowledge bases: sociospatial implications for learning, innovation, and innovation policy," Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 25(5), pages 655-670, October.
- Karlsson, Charlie, 2007. "Clusters, Functional Regions and Cluster Policies," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 84, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
- Audretsch, David B & Falck, Oliver & Feldman, Maryann P & Heblich, Stephan, 2008. "The Lifecycle of Regions," CEPR Discussion Papers 6757, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Roine, Jesper, 2006.
"Promoting Entrepreneurship in the Welfare State,"
SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance
621, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Asheim, Bjorn T. & Coenen, Lars, 2005. "Knowledge bases and regional innovation systems: Comparing Nordic clusters," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1173-1190, October.
- David B. Audretsch & Roy Thurik, 2001. "Linking Entrepreneurship to Growth," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2001/2, OECD Publishing.
- Eberhard, Birgid & Fachinger, Uwe & Henke, Klaus-Dirk, 2009.
"Better Health and Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) from a global, regional and local economic perspective,"
16210, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Eberhardt, Birgid & Fachinger, Uwe & Henke, Klaus-Dirk, 2009. "Better health and ambient assisted living (AAL) from a global, regional and local economic perspective," Discussion Papers 2009/3, Technische Universität Berlin, School of Economics and Management.
- David G. Blanchflower, 2000.
"Self-Employment in OECD Countries,"
NBER Working Papers
7486, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- André van Stel & Ingrid Verheul, 2007.
"Entrepreneurial diversity and economic growth,"
Scales Research Reports
H200701, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- Verheul, I. & van Stel, A.J., 2007. "Entrepreneurial Diversity and Economic Growth," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2007-070-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
- Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2006.
"Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union,"
Scales Research Reports
N200515, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- Isabel Grilo & Roy Thurik, 2005. "Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-29, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
- Parker,Simon C., 2004.
"The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521828130, September.
- Parker,Simon C., 2006. "The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521030632, September.
- John H. Munro, 2006. "Entrepreneurship in Early-Modern Europe (1450 - 1750): An Exploration of Some Unfashionable Themes in Economic History," Working Papers tecipa-257, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
- Kaiserfledt, Thomas, 2006. "Review of Theories of Invention and Innovation," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 47, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
- Ronen, Joshua, 1989. "The rise and decay of entrepreneurship: A different perspective," Journal of Behavioral Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 167-184.
- Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2005.
"Latent and actual entrepreneurship in Europe and the US: some recent developments,"
Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy
2005-24, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
- Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2006. "Latent and actual entrepreneurship in Europe and the US: some recent developments," Scales Research Reports N200514, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- Bjørn, Asheim & Coenen, Lars & Vang, Jan, 2005. "Face-to-Face, Buzz and Knowledge Bases: Socio-spatial implications for learning and innovation policy," Papers in Innovation Studies 2005/18, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
- Koetter, Michael & Wedow, Michael, 2008. "Does regional redistribution spur growth?," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2008,28, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Cochran, Thomas C., 1960. "Cultural Factors in Economic Growth," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(04), pages 515-530, December.
- Hans Westlund, 2006. "The Social Capital of Regional Dynamics: A Policy Perspective," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-423, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:23271. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.