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A comparison of rail liberalisation levels across four European countries

Author

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  • Beria, Paolo
  • Quinet, Emile
  • de Rus, Gines
  • Schulz, Carola

Abstract

The paper presents the results of a research on railway regulation and liberalisation in Italy, France, Germany and Spain. The analysed fields of regulation are the relationship between the State and the rail companies, network access conditions by operators, slot allocating and pricing schemes and how public service obligations are defined, paid and regulated. The aim of the paper is to give a comparative overview of the rail regulation from a critical point of view, rather than descriptive. The regulatory frameworks are outlined and then assessed according to their implications on the liberalisation level and on the effective market opening. The conclusions are that the actual level of liberalisation is still scarce and only in some cases the opening level is increasing. Market penetration of newcomers is significant only in niche markets. An issue emerging from the work is the opposing attitude of incumbent railways against liberalisation and the role of decision makers in backing this behaviour. The strategies followed to limit the outcomes of the liberalisation process are different across the country sample. However, all the incumbents argue with the self-referential declaration of efficiency, public service obligations and they claim to be under an excessive and unfair foreign competition. These arguments are yet embedded in legislative, organisational and economic settings supporting these positions like the common ownership of network and services, the permanence of dominant positions and favourable financial conditions.

Suggested Citation

  • Beria, Paolo & Quinet, Emile & de Rus, Gines & Schulz, Carola, 2010. "A comparison of rail liberalisation levels across four European countries," MPRA Paper 29142, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:29142
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Arrigo, Ugo & Di Foggia, Giacomo, 2013. "Schemes and levels of state aid to rail industry in Europe: evidences from a cross-country comparison," MPRA Paper 67829, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. David Hergott & Florent Laroche & Patricia Perennes, 2014. "30 fiches pour comprendre les enjeux de la réforme ferroviaire," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-01486732, HAL.
    3. Turgut Ozkan & Gozde Yanginlar & Salih Kalayci, 2016. "Railway Transport Liberalization: A Case Study of Various Countries in the World," Journal of Management and Sustainability, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 6(4), pages 140-148, December.
    4. Laurino, Antonio & Ramella, Francesco & Beria, Paolo, 2015. "The economic regulation of railway networks: A worldwide survey," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 202-212.
    5. Tomeš, Zdeněk & Kvizda, Martin & Nigrin, Tomáš & Seidenglanz, Daniel, 2014. "Competition in the railway passenger market in the Czech Republic," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 270-276.
    6. Bošković, Branislav & Bugarinović, Mirjana, 2015. "Why and how to manage the process of liberalization of a regional railway market: South-Eastern European case study," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 50-59.
    7. Wolfgang Kerber & Julia Wendel, 2014. "Regulation of Network Sectors in the EU: A Federalist Perspective," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201422, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
    8. Giovanni ESPOSITO & Julia DOLESCHEL & Tobias KALOUD & Marco MARIOTTI & Jadwiga URBAN-KOZŁOWSKA, 2017. "The European Railway Sectors: Understanding and Assessing Change," Departmental Working Papers 2017-01, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
    9. Dederke, Julian, 2014. "Bahnliberalisierung in der Europäischen Union: Die Rolle des EuGH als politischer und politisch restringierter Akteur bei der Transformation staatsnaher Sektoren," PIPE - Papers on International Political Economy 20/2014, Free University Berlin, Center for International Political Economy.
    10. Arrigo, Ugo & Di Foggia, Giacomo, 2013. "Assessing the railways subsidy in selected European countries: insights from the Italian case," MPRA Paper 67830, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Álvarez-SanJaime, Óscar & Cantos-Sanchez, Pedro & Moner-Colonques, Rafael & Sempere-Monerris, Jose J., 2016. "Rail access charges and internal competition in high speed trains," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 184-195.
    12. Mihail BUSU & Cristian BUSU, 2015. "The Liberalization Process Of The Railway Sector In Romania And Some Infringement Case Studies," Proceedings of the INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE, Faculty of Management, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 9(1), pages 532-540, November.
    13. Ugo ARRIGO & Giacomo DI FOGGIA, 2014. "Theoretical And Viable Charging Models For Railway Infrastructure Access: An European Survey," Management Research and Practice, Research Centre in Public Administration and Public Services, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 6(2), pages 5-24, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    railways; liberalisation; regulation; Europe; Italy; France; Germany; Spain;

    JEL classification:

    • L51 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Economics of Regulation
    • L92 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Railroads and Other Surface Transportation
    • R48 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Government Pricing and Policy
    • P16 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems - - - Political Economy of Capitalism

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