Market Structure and State Involvement: Passenger Railways in Europe
Over the past 25 years railways in Europe have experienced substantial changes in terms of legislative measures to strengthen the competitiveness of the sector. This chapter will provide an overview of the different reform measures and the outcomes to date with particular emphasis on the issues linked to passenger transportation. In particular, the chapter will be structured as follows. Firstly, the background to the reform initiatives will be outlined. Secondly, the specific reform elements will be described. Thirdly, the implementation of the reform measures at country level will be examined in order to identify variation between EU Member States. Subsequently, the outcomes will be examined in terms of market structure, competition and state involvement as well as how the reforms have impacted the overall performance of the railway sector. Finally, the chapter will put forward future perspectives in terms of how the railways in Europe will develop over the coming years.
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