Passenger railway reform in the last 20 years - European experience reconsidered
It is about 20 years since the rail reform process in Europe began with the separation of infrastructure from operations in Sweden. This paper reviews the entire process, examining the objectives of reform, the different models adopted, and the key elements of separation of infrastructure from operations, competition both through open access and franchising and regulation and infrastructure charging. It is concluded that separation of infrastructure from operations involves costs, but is the most effective way of achieving within mode competition. Where operations do not greatly overlap and open access passenger and freight are unimportant, leasing infrastructure to passenger franchisees may be effective, but the model of vertical integration as separate subsidiaries within a holding company structure makes it difficult to ensure a level playing field for new entrants and is only effective where the vertically integrated operator remains dominant.
Volume (Year): 22 (2008)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
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