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Policy for better Air Quality in Asia: Proposal for a Policy Evaluation Method for four ASEAN Countries

Author

Listed:
  • Hirota, Keiko

Abstract

Four ASEAN countries Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand are facing major air pollution problems due to rapid economic growth, urbanization and motorization. Mortality and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution are believed to be endemic in cities of these countries. Regulations and standards are the first requirement for reducing emissions from both fixed and mobile sources. In order to reduce vehicle emissions, governments of the four countries are making efforts to introduce vehicle emission regulations for new vehicles. This paper attempts to estimate the 2015 car stock by emission regulation levels from past trends. Considering these car stock results, this paper emphasizes monitoring problems such as vehicle registration systems, inspection and maintenance (I/M) systems and fuel quality monitoring systems for vehicles in use. Monitoring problems in developing countries share similar characteristics such as a weakness in government initiatives and inadequate operation of government agencies, which results from a lack of human resources and analysis of facilities. Finally, this paper proposes a method to assure air quality improvement under the different shares of emission regulations in these four ASEAN countries and introduces an example of an evaluation method based on a policy survey to improve air quality.

Suggested Citation

  • Hirota, Keiko, 2007. "Policy for better Air Quality in Asia: Proposal for a Policy Evaluation Method for four ASEAN Countries," MPRA Paper 15081, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 04 Oct 2007.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:15081
    as

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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/15081/1/MPRA_paper_15081.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ostro, Bart, 1994. "Estimating the health effects of air pollutants : a method with an application to Jakarta," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1301, The World Bank.
    2. Berkovec, James, 1985. "Forecasting automobile demand using disaggregate choice models," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 315-329, August.
    3. Hirota, Keiko, 2006. "Review of Lead Phase Out for Air Quality Improvement in the Third World Cities Lessons from Thailand and Indonesia," MPRA Paper 15322, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Parks, Richard W, 1977. "Determinants of Scrapping Rates for Postwar Vintage Automobiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(5), pages 1099-1115, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Asia; Air Pollution; Environment and Development; Transportation; Regulatory Policies;

    JEL classification:

    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • R41 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Travel Time; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise
    • N75 - Economic History - - Economic History: Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, and Other Services - - - Asia including Middle East
    • R48 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Government Pricing and Policy

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