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Review of Lead Phase Out for Air Quality Improvement in the Third World Cities Lessons from Thailand and Indonesia


  • Hirota, Keiko


Due to the rapid economic growth, and increase of motor vehicle ownerships in Asian countries, people are suffering from serious air pollution problems, especially in large cities. There has been a worldwide movement to eliminate lead from gasoline since the 1970s. In accordance with lead elimination from gasoline, the concentration of lead in air and its health impact have also decreased. This paper is an attempt to discuss about environmental measures in Thailand and Indonesia. From a point of view on environmental measures, the case studies show different problem and process of lead phase out policy because of different socio-economic backgrounds, the initial conditions of the oil industries and government capacity. Behinds environmental measures, the case studies indicate that the most important change driver is strong leadership to achieve consensus among different stakeholders.

Suggested Citation

  • Hirota, Keiko, 2006. "Review of Lead Phase Out for Air Quality Improvement in the Third World Cities Lessons from Thailand and Indonesia," MPRA Paper 15322, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:15322

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Sayeg, P., 1998. "Successful Conversion to Unleaded Gasoline in Thailand," Papers 410, World Bank - Technical Papers.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hirota, Keiko, 2007. "Policy for better Air Quality in Asia: Proposal for a Policy Evaluation Method for four ASEAN Countries," MPRA Paper 15081, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 04 Oct 2007.

    More about this item


    Asia; Coordination; Air Pollution; Sustainability; Regulatory Policy;

    JEL classification:

    • R53 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Public Facility Location Analysis; Public Investment and Capital Stock
    • P41 - Economic Systems - - Other Economic Systems - - - Planning, Coordination, and Reform
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • N75 - Economic History - - Economic History: Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, and Other Services - - - Asia including Middle East


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