A Total Factor Productivity-Capital Accumulation Hypothesis of India’s Growth Transitions
This paper re-examines the role of physical capital accumulation in the Indian economy over the period 1953-2010. As an alternative to the orthodox total factor productivity (TFP) view, the paper develops a combined TFP-capital accumulation hypothesis of growth transitions. The results show that the first phase of India’s faster-growing regime during 1980-2002 was mainly TFP driven. However, the large increase in uninvested profits accumulated during the first phase together with evidence of a sharp rise in the productivity of capital and an exogenous saving/investment rate implies that India had a significant amount of untapped long-run growth potential. Consistent with the prediction of the model, the growth surge experienced during 2003-2007 reflects the capital accumulation-driven part of the growth transition. Despite the turbulent years of the global financial crisis since 2008, the analysis suggests that physical capital accumulation will continue to be a driving force of India’s future growth performance.
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