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Are Conditional Cash Transfers Effective in Urban Areas? Evidence from Mexico

Author

Listed:
  • Jere R. Behrman

    (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania)

  • Jorge Gallardo-Garcia

    (Bates White Consulting, Wash DC)

  • Susan W. Parker

    (División de Economía, Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas – CIDE)

  • Petra E. Todd

    (Department of Economics. University of Pennsylvania)

  • Viviana Velez-Grajales

    (Inter-American Development Bank, IDB Headquarters, Wash DC)

Abstract

Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have spread worldwide as a new form of social assistance for the poor. Previous evaluations of CCT programs focus mainly on rural settings, and little is known about their effects in urban areas. This paper studies the short-term (one and two-year) effects of the Mexican Oportunidades CCT program on urban children/youth. The program provides financial incentives for children/youth to attend school and for family members to visit health clinics. To participate, families had to sign up for the program and be deemed eligible. Difference-in-difference propensity score matching estimates indicate that the program is successful in increasing school enrollment, schooling attainment and time devoted to homework and in decreasing working rates of boys.

Suggested Citation

  • Jere R. Behrman & Jorge Gallardo-Garcia & Susan W. Parker & Petra E. Todd & Viviana Velez-Grajales, 2011. "Are Conditional Cash Transfers Effective in Urban Areas? Evidence from Mexico," PIER Working Paper Archive 11-024, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  • Handle: RePEc:pen:papers:11-024
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Oswald, Yvonne & Backes-Gellner, Uschi, 2014. "Learning for a bonus: How financial incentives interact with preferences," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 52-61.
    2. Raymundo M. Campos†Vazquez & Alma S. Santillan, 2018. "Supply of schooling and dropout rates: Evidence from the Oportunidades programme in Mexico," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 36(4), pages 445-464, July.
    3. Jacobus de Hoop & Furio C. Rosati, 2014. "Cash Transfers and Child Labor," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 29(2), pages 202-234.
    4. Levasseur, Pierre, 2019. "Can social programs break the vicious cycle between poverty and obesity? Evidence from urban Mexico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 143-156.
    5. Carla Canelas & Miguel Niño‐Zarazúa, 2019. "Schooling and Labor Market Impacts of Bolivia's Bono Juancito Pinto Program," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 45(S1), pages 155-179, December.
    6. Zhou, Lei & Jiang, Bo & Wang, Jingxi, 2020. "Do cash transfers have impacts on student Academic, cognitive, and enrollment outcomes? Evidence from rural China," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 116(C).
    7. Dustan, Andrew, 2020. "Can large, untargeted conditional cash transfers increase urban high school graduation rates? Evidence from Mexico City's Prepa Sí," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 143(C).
    8. Guido Neidhöfer & Miguel Niño‐Zarazúa, 2019. "The Long(er)‐Term Impacts of Chile Solidario on Human Capital and Labor Income," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 45(S1), pages 209-244, December.
    9. Gentilini,Ugo, 2015. "Entering the city : emerging evidence and practices with safety nets in urban areas," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 98253, The World Bank.
    10. Carla Canelas & Miguel Niño-Zarazúa, 2018. "Schooling and labour market impacts of Bolivia’s Bono Juancito Pinto," WIDER Working Paper Series 036, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    11. Sandra García & Juan Saavedra, 2017. "Educational Impacts and Cost-Effectiveness of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs in Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis," NBER Working Papers 23594, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Kozhaya, Mireille & Martínez Flores, Fernanda, 2020. "Child Education and Work: Evidence from Mexico's Full-Time School Program," VfS Annual Conference 2020 (Virtual Conference): Gender Economics 224567, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    13. Armando Barrientos & Jasmina Byrne & Juan Miguel Villa & Paola Peña, 2013. "Social Transfers and Child Protection," Papers inwopa691, Innocenti Working Papers.
    14. Guido Neidhöfer & Miguel Niño‐Zarazúa, 2019. "The Long(er)‐Term Impacts of Chile Solidario on Human Capital and Labor Income," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 45(S1), pages 209-244, December.
    15. Kozhaya, Mireille & Martinez Flores, Fernanda, 2020. "Schooling and child labor: Evidence from Mexico's full-time school program," Ruhr Economic Papers 851, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    16. Del Boca, Daniela & Pronzato, Chiara & Sorrenti, Giuseppe, 2021. "Conditional cash transfer programs and household labor supply," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 136(C).
    17. Yörük, Erdem & Öker, İbrahim & Şarlak, Lara, 2019. "Indigenous unrest and the contentious politics of social assistance in Mexico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 1-1.
    18. Pfutze, Tobias, 2019. "Should program graduation be better targeted? The other schooling outcomes of Mexico’s Oportunidades," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 1-1.
    19. Rafael P. Ribas, 2014. "Liquidity Constraints, Informal Financing, and Entrepreneurship: Direct and Indirect Effects of a Cash Transfer Programme," Working Papers 131, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
    20. Independent Evaluation Group, 2014. "Social Safety Nets and Gender : Learning from Impact Evaluations and World Bank Projects," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 21365, July.
    21. Balmori de la Miyar, Jose Roberto, 2018. "The effect of conditional cash transfers on reporting violence against women to the police in Mexico," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 73-91.
    22. Santos, Rafael J., 2018. "Blessing and curse. The gold boom and local development in Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 337-355.
    23. Carla Canelas & Miguel Niño-Zarazúa, 2018. "Schooling and labour market impacts of Bolivia's Bono Juancito Pinto," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2018-36, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    24. Pettersson, Jan & Wikström, Johan, 2013. "Peeing out of poverty? Human fertilizer and the productivity of farming households," Working Paper Series 2013:1, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    conditional cash transfer programs; matching estimators; program evaluation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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