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The Export Performance of Countries within Global Value Chains (GVCs)


  • Andrea Beltramello


  • Koen De Backer


  • Laurent Moussiegt



The growing importance of global value chains (GVCs) in the international organisation of production increasingly challenges the traditional way of measuring countries’ export performance and hence international competitiveness. As a result of growing production fragmentation, a country’s export bundle nowadays incorporates imports of intermediate goods representing a (large) part of its value. In this case, simply looking at the evolution of exports may misrepresent the international competitive position of a country. This paper discusses the export performance of countries along the value chain by distinguishing upstream activities (i.e. the production of intermediate inputs) and more downstream activities (e.g. the final assembly of products). The empirical analysis first shows how imports of intermediates increasingly determine the export competitiveness of countries in final products. Second, the paper analyses the developments at the intensive and extensive margins of trade and studies how structural changes in terms of geographical and sectoral composition, largely outside the influence of national policies, have contributed to countries’ export performance. L'importance croissante des chaînes de valeur mondiales (CVM) dans l'organisation internationale de la production remet en question la façon traditionnelle de mesurer la performance à l’exportation et par conséquent la compétitivité internationale des pays. De nos jours, en raison de la fragmentation de la production, les exportations d'un pays intègrent des importations de biens intermédiaires qui représentent une partie (importante) de leur valeur. Dans ce cas, regarder exclusivement l'évolution des exportations peut biaiser la position concurrentielle internationale d'un pays. Ce document de travail examine la performance à l’exportation des pays au long des CVM, en distinguant les activités en amont (à savoir la production d'intrants) des activités en aval (par exemple l'assemblage final des produits). L'analyse empirique montre d'abord que les importations de biens intermédiaires déterminent de plus en plus la compétitivité des exportations des biens finaux des pays. Deuxièmement, le document de travail analyse les développements au niveau des marges intensive et extensive du commerce, et examine comment les changements structurels en termes de composition géographique et sectorielle des exportations, qui sont en grande partie hors de l'influence des politiques nationales, ont contribué à la performance à l’exportation des pays.

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  • Andrea Beltramello & Koen De Backer & Laurent Moussiegt, 2012. "The Export Performance of Countries within Global Value Chains (GVCs)," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2012/2, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:stiaaa:2012/2-en

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Angela Cheptea & Lionel Fontagné & Soledad Zignago, 2014. "European export performance," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 150(1), pages 25-58, February.
    2. Gabriel J Felbermayr & Wilhelm Kohler, 2014. "Exploring the Intensive and Extensive Margins of World Trade," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: European Economic Integration, WTO Membership, Immigration and Offshoring, chapter 4, pages 115-148 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Daria Taglioni & Richard Baldwin, 2014. "Gravity chains: Estimating bilateral trade flows when parts and components trade is important," Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 2(2), pages 61-82, November.
    4. Richard Frensch, 2010. "Trade Liberalization and Import Margins," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(3), pages 4-22, May.
    5. Alberto Amurgo-Pacheco, Martha Denisse Pierola, 2007. "Patterns of export diversification in developing countries: intensive and extensive margins," IHEID Working Papers 20-2007, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies, revised Jul 2007.
    6. Gaulier, Guillaume & Zignago, Soledad, 2004. "Notes on BACI (analytical database of international trade). 1989-2002 version," MPRA Paper 32401, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Ando, Mitsuyo, 2006. "Fragmentation and vertical intra-industry trade in East Asia," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 257-281, December.
    8. di Mauro, Filippo & Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P. & Vicard, Vincent & Altomonte, Carlo & Rungi, Armando, 2012. "Global value chains during the great trade collapse: a bullwhip effect?," Working Paper Series 1412, European Central Bank.
    9. Angela Cheptea & Guillaume Gaulier & Soledad Zignago, 2004. "The World Market: Market Shares and Export Performances," La Lettre du CEPII, CEPII research center, issue 231.
    10. Anderton, Robert & De Santis, Roberto A. & Warmedinger, Thomas & di Mauro, Filippo & Task Force of the Monetary Policy Committee of the ESCB & Ernst, Ekkehard & Sydow, Matthias & Zumer, Tina & Shen, J, 2005. "Competitiveness and the export performance of the euro area," Occasional Paper Series 30, European Central Bank.
    11. Besedes, Tibor & Prusa, Thomas J., 2011. "The role of extensive and intensive margins and export growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 371-379, November.
    12. Bricongne, Jean-Charles & Fontagné, Lionel & Gaulier, Guillaume & Taglioni, Daria & Vicard, Vincent, 2012. "Firms and the global crisis: French exports in the turmoil," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 134-146.
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    Cited by:

    1. Angela Cheptea & Lionel Fontagné & Soledad Zignago, 2014. "European export performance," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 150(1), pages 25-58, February.
    2. Lectard, Pauline & Rougier, Eric, 2018. "Can Developing Countries Gain from Defying Comparative Advantage? Distance to Comparative Advantage, Export Diversification and Sophistication, and the Dynamics of Specialization," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 90-110.
    3. Gaulier, G. & Santoni, G. & Taglioni, D. & Zignago, S., 2013. "Market Shares in the Wake of the Global Crisis: the Quarterly Export Competitiveness Database," Working papers 472, Banque de France.
    4. Stirbat, Liviu & Record, Richard & Nghardsaysone, Konesawang, 2015. "The Experience of Survival: Determinants of Export Survival in Lao PDR," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 82-94.

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