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The Export Performance of Countries within Global Value Chains (GVCs)

  • Andrea Beltramello
  • Koen De Backer
  • Laurent Moussiegt
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    The growing importance of global value chains (GVCs) in the international organisation of production increasingly challenges the traditional way of measuring countries’ export performance and hence international competitiveness. As a result of growing production fragmentation, a country’s export bundle nowadays incorporates imports of intermediate goods representing a (large) part of its value. In this case, simply looking at the evolution of exports may misrepresent the international competitive position of a country. This paper discusses the export performance of countries along the value chain by distinguishing upstream activities (i.e. the production of intermediate inputs) and more downstream activities (e.g. the final assembly of products). The empirical analysis first shows how imports of intermediates increasingly determine the export competitiveness of countries in final products. Second, the paper analyses the developments at the intensive and extensive margins of trade and studies how structural changes in terms of geographical and sectoral composition, largely outside the influence of national policies, have contributed to countries’ export performance. L'importance croissante des chaînes de valeur mondiales (CVM) dans l'organisation internationale de la production remet en question la façon traditionnelle de mesurer la performance à l’exportation et par conséquent la compétitivité internationale des pays. De nos jours, en raison de la fragmentation de la production, les exportations d'un pays intègrent des importations de biens intermédiaires qui représentent une partie (importante) de leur valeur. Dans ce cas, regarder exclusivement l'évolution des exportations peut biaiser la position concurrentielle internationale d'un pays. Ce document de travail examine la performance à l’exportation des pays au long des CVM, en distinguant les activités en amont (à savoir la production d'intrants) des activités en aval (par exemple l'assemblage final des produits). L'analyse empirique montre d'abord que les importations de biens intermédiaires déterminent de plus en plus la compétitivité des exportations des biens finaux des pays. Deuxièmement, le document de travail analyse les développements au niveau des marges intensive et extensive du commerce, et examine comment les changements structurels en termes de composition géographique et sectorielle des exportations, qui sont en grande partie hors de l'influence des politiques nationales, ont contribué à la performance à l’exportation des pays.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k9bh3gv6647-en
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    Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers with number 2012/2.

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    Date of creation: 12 Apr 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:oec:stiaaa:2012/2-en
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    1. Richard Frensch, 2010. "Trade Liberalization and Import Margins," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 46(3), pages 4-22, May.
    2. Bricongne, J-C. & Fontagné, L. & Gaulier, G. & Taglioni, D. & Vicard, V., 2009. "Firms and the global crisis: French exports in the turmoil," Working papers 265, Banque de France.
    3. Angela Cheptea & Lionel Fontagné & Soledad Zignago, 2014. "European export performance," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 150(1), pages 25-58, February.
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    5. Daria Taglioni & Richard Baldwin, 2014. "Gravity chains: Estimating bilateral trade flows when parts and components trade is important," Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 2(2), pages 61-82, November.
    6. Carlo Altomonte & Filippo Di Mauro & Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano & Armando Rungi & Vincent Vicard, 2012. "Global Value Chains During the Great Trade Collapse: A Bullwhip Effect?," CEP Discussion Papers dp1131, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    7. Felbermayr, Gabriel & Kohler, Wilhelm K., 2006. "Exploring the intensive and extensive margins of world trade," Munich Reprints in Economics 20610, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    8. repec:lmu:muenar:20646 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Ando, Mitsuyo, 2006. "Fragmentation and vertical intra-industry trade in East Asia," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 257-281, December.
    10. Besedes, Tibor & Prusa, Thomas J., 2011. "The role of extensive and intensive margins and export growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 371-379, November.
    11. Gaulier, Guillaume & Zignago, Soledad, 2004. "Notes on BACI (analytical database of international trade). 1989-2002 version," MPRA Paper 32401, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Amurgo-Pacheco, Alberto & Pierola, Martha Denisse, 2008. "Patterns of export diversification in developing countries : intensive and extensive margins," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4473, The World Bank.
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