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Inside and Outside Money, Gains to Trade, and IS-LM

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  • P. Dubey

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  • J. Geanakoplos

Abstract

We build a one-period general equilibrium model with money. Equilibrium exists, and fiat money has positive value, as long as the ratio of outside money to inside money is less than the gains to trade available at autarky. We show that the nominal effects of government fiscal and monetary policy can be completely described by a diagram identical in form to the IS-LM curves introduced by Hicks to describe Keynes' general theory. IS-LM analysis is thus not incompatible with full market clearing, multiple commodities, and heterogeneous households. We show that as the government deficit approaches a finite threshold, hyperinflation sets in (prices converge to infinity and real trade collapses). If the government surplus is too large, the economy enters a liquidity trap in which nominal GNP sinks and monetary policy is ineffectual.

Suggested Citation

  • P. Dubey & J. Geanakoplos, 2001. "Inside and Outside Money, Gains to Trade, and IS-LM," Department of Economics Working Papers 01-08, Stony Brook University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:nys:sunysb:01-08
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. David K. Levine, 1989. "Efficiency and the Value of Money," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 56(1), pages 77-88.
    2. Jean-Michel Grandmont & Yves Younes, 1972. "On the Role of Money and the Existence of a Monetary Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 39(3), pages 355-372.
    3. Geanakoplos, John & Mas-Colell, Andreu, 1989. "Real indeterminacy with financial assets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 22-38, February.
    4. Jean-Michel Grandmont & Yves Younes, 1973. "On the Efficiency of a Monetary Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(2), pages 149-165.
    5. Bewley, Truman, 1983. "A Difficulty with the Optimum Quantity of Money," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(5), pages 1485-1504, September.
    6. Paul A. Samuelson, 1958. "An Exact Consumption-Loan Model of Interest with or without the Social Contrivance of Money," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 467-467.
    7. Heller, Walter Perrin, 1974. "The holding of money balances in general equilibrium," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 93-108, January.
    8. Dubey, Pradeep & Shapley, Lloyd S., 1994. "Noncooperative general exchange with a continuum of traders: Two models," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 253-293, May.
    9. Balasko, Yves & Cass, David, 1989. "The Structure of Financial Equilibrium with Exogenous Yields: The Case of Incomplete Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(1), pages 135-162, January.
    10. Ioannis Karatzas & Martin Shubik & William D. Sudderth, 1992. "Construction of Stationary Markov Equilibria in a Strategic Market Game," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1033, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    11. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1990. "Liquidity and interest rates," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 237-264, April.
    12. Magill, M. & Quinzii, M., 1992. "Real effects of money in general equilibrium," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 301-342.
    13. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1980. "Equilibrium in a Pure Currency Economy," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 18(2), pages 203-220, April.
    14. Bryce Hool, 1976. "Money, Expectations and the Existence of a Temporary Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 43(3), pages 439-445.
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    Cited by:

    1. Yu Hsing, 2004. "Response of Venezuelan output to monetary policy, deficit spending, and currency depreciation: a VAR model," REVISTA DE ECONOMÍA DEL ROSARIO, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO, December.
    2. Heracles M. Polemarchakis & Jacques H. Drèze, 1995. "Monetary Equilibria," Working Papers hal-00607521, HAL.
    3. Andreas Schabert, 2004. "On the relevance of open market operations for the short-run effects of monetary policy," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2003 83, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
    4. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:15:y:2005:i:5:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Leo Ferraris, 2002. "Inside versus outside money: indeterminacy in GEI models," Working Papers 62, University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Public Economics.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D50 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - General
    • E40 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - General
    • E50 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - General
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies

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