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Inside and Outside Money, Gains to Trade, and IS-LM

We build a one-period general equilibrium model with money. Equilibrium exists, and fiat money has positive value, as long as the ratio of outside money to inside money is less than the gains to trade available at autarky. We show that the nominal effects of government fiscal and monetary policy can be completely described by a diagram identical in form to the IS-LM curves introduced by Hicks to describe Keynes' general theory. IS-LM analysis is thus not incompatible with full market clearing, multiple commodities, and heterogeneous households. We show that as the government deficit approaches a finite threshold, hyperinflation sets in (prices converge to infinity and real trade collapses). If the government surplus is too large, the economy enters a liquidity trap in which nominal GNP sinks and monetary policy is ineffectual.

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File URL: http://cowles.econ.yale.edu/P/cd/d12b/d1257-r.pdf
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Paper provided by Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University in its series Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers with number 1257R.

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Length: 52 pages
Date of creation: May 2000
Date of revision: Jun 2001
Publication status: Published in Economic Theory (2003), 21(2-3): 347-397
Handle: RePEc:cwl:cwldpp:1257r
Note: CFP 1052.
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Phone: (203) 432-3702
Fax: (203) 432-6167
Web page: http://cowles.econ.yale.edu/

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Order Information: Postal: Cowles Foundation, Yale University, Box 208281, New Haven, CT 06520-8281 USA

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  1. Magill,Michael & Quinzii,Martine, 1989. "Real effects of money in general equilibrium," Discussion Paper Serie A 232, University of Bonn, Germany.
  2. Balasko, Yves & Cass, David, 1989. "The Structure of Financial Equilibrium with Exogenous Yields: The Case of Incomplete Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(1), pages 135-62, January.
  3. David K. Levine, 1989. "Efficiency and the Value of Money," Levine's Working Paper Archive 2161, David K. Levine.
  4. Paul A. Samuelson, 1958. "An Exact Consumption-Loan Model of Interest with or without the Social Contrivance of Money," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 467.
  5. Grandmont, Jean-Michel & Younes, Yves, 1973. "On the Efficiency of a Monetary Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(2), pages 149-65, April.
  6. Bewley, Truman, 1983. "A Difficulty with the Optimum Quantity of Money," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(5), pages 1485-504, September.
  7. John Geanakoplos & Andreu Mas-Colell, 1985. "Real Indeterminacy with Financial Assets," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 770R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Oct 1985.
  8. Dubey, Pradeep & Shapley, Lloyd S., 1994. "Noncooperative general exchange with a continuum of traders: Two models," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 253-293, May.
  9. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1990. "Liquidity and interest rates," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 237-264, April.
  10. Ioannis Karatzas & Martin Shubik & William D. Sudderth, 1992. "Construction of Stationary Markov Equilibria in a Strategic Market Game," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1033, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  11. Grandmont, Jean-Michel & Younes, Yves, 1972. "On the Role of Money and the Existence of a Monetary Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(3), pages 355-72, July.
  12. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1980. "Equilibrium in a Pure Currency Economy," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 18(2), pages 203-20, April.
  13. Hool, Bryce, 1976. "Money, Expectations and the Existence of a Temporary Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(3), pages 439-45, October.
  14. Heller, Walter Perrin, 1974. "The holding of money balances in general equilibrium," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 93-108, January.
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