IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nip/nipewp/13-2017.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

California´s Carbon Market and Energy Prices: A Wavelet Analysis

Author

Listed:

Abstract

Carbon price is a key variable in management and risk decisions in activities related to the burning of fossil fuels. Different major players in this market, such as polluters, regulators, and financial actors, have different time horizons. We use innovative multivariate wavelet analysis tools, including partial wavelet coherency and partial wavelet gain, to study the link between carbon prices and final energy prices in the time and frequency dimensions in California’s carbon market, officially known as the California cap-and-trade program. We find that gasoline prices lead an anti-phase relation with carbon prices. This result is very stable at lower frequencies (close to one-year period cycles), and it is also present before mid-2015 in the 20 ∼ 34 weeks frequency-band. Regarding electricity, we find that at about a one-year period, a rise in carbon prices is reflected in higher electricity prices. We conclude that the first five years of compliance of the California cap-and-trade program show t at emissions’ trading is a significant measure for climate change mitigation, with visible rising carbon prices. The quantitative financial analytics we present supports the recent decision to extend the current market to 2030 without the need for complementary carbon pricing schemes.

Suggested Citation

  • Luís Aguiar-Conraria & Maria Joana Soares & Rita Sousa, 2017. "California´s Carbon Market and Energy Prices: A Wavelet Analysis," NIPE Working Papers 13/2017, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
  • Handle: RePEc:nip:nipewp:13/2017
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nipe.eeg.uminho.pt/Uploads/WP_2017/NIPE%20WP_13_2017.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Alberola, Emilie & Chevallier, Julien & Chèze, Benoît, 2009. "Emissions Compliances and Carbon Prices under the EU ETS: A Country Specific Analysis of Industrial Sectors," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 446-462, May.
    2. Mandler, Martin & Scharnagl, Michael, 2014. "Money growth and consumer price inflation in the euro area: A wavelet analysis," Discussion Papers 33/2014, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    3. Lutz, Benjamin Johannes & Pigorsch, Uta & Rotfuß, Waldemar, 2013. "Nonlinearity in cap-and-trade systems: The EUA price and its fundamentals," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 222-232.
    4. Keppler, Jan Horst & Mansanet-Bataller, Maria, 2010. "Causalities between CO2, electricity, and other energy variables during phase I and phase II of the EU ETS," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 3329-3341, July.
    5. Creti, Anna & Jouvet, Pierre-André & Mignon, Valérie, 2012. "Carbon price drivers: Phase I versus Phase II equilibrium?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 327-334.
    6. Jammazi, Rania, 2012. "Cross dynamics of oil-stock interactions: A redundant wavelet analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 750-777.
    7. Vacha, Lukas & Barunik, Jozef, 2012. "Co-movement of energy commodities revisited: Evidence from wavelet coherence analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 241-247.
    8. Sijm, Jos & Chen, Yihsu & Hobbs, Benjamin F., 2012. "The impact of power market structure on CO2 cost pass-through to electricity prices under quantity competition – A theoretical approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 1143-1152.
    9. Fine, James & Busch, Christopher & Garderet, Remy, 2012. "The upside hedge value of California's global warming policy given uncertain future oil prices," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 46-51.
    10. Reboredo, Juan C., 2014. "Volatility spillovers between the oil market and the European Union carbon emission market," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 229-234.
    11. Chevallier, Julien, 2011. "Macroeconomics, finance, commodities: Interactions with carbon markets in a data-rich model," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 557-567.
    12. Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Mutascu, Mihai Ioan & Albulescu, Claudiu Tiberiu, 2013. "The influence of the international oil prices on the real effective exchange rate in Romania in a wavelet transform framework," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 714-733.
    13. Kyrtsou, Catherine & Malliaris, Anastasios G. & Serletis, Apostolos, 2009. "Energy sector pricing: On the role of neglected nonlinearity," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 492-502, May.
    14. Sousa, Rita & Aguiar-Conraria, Luís & Soares, Maria Joana, 2014. "Carbon financial markets: A time–frequency analysis of CO2 prices," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 414(C), pages 118-127.
    15. Naccache, Théo, 2011. "Oil price cycles and wavelets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 338-352, March.
    16. repec:dau:papers:123456789/5111 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Kumar, Surender & Managi, Shunsuke & Matsuda, Akimi, 2012. "Stock prices of clean energy firms, oil and carbon markets: A vector autoregressive analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 215-226.
    18. Aloui, Chaker & Hkiri, Besma, 2014. "Co-movements of GCC emerging stock markets: New evidence from wavelet coherence analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 421-431.
    19. Aatola, Piia & Ollikainen, Markku & Toppinen, Anne, 2013. "Price determination in the EU ETS market: Theory and econometric analysis with market fundamentals," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 380-395.
    20. Bushnell, James & Chen, Yihsu & Zaragoza-Watkins, Matthew, 2014. "Downstream regulation of CO2 emissions in California's electricity sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 313-323.
    21. Luís Aguiar-Conraria & Maria Joana Soares, 2014. "The Continuous Wavelet Transform: Moving Beyond Uni- And Bivariate Analysis," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(2), pages 344-375, April.
    22. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4224 is not listed on IDEAS
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Fernando Alexandre & Pedro Bação & Miguel Portela, 2019. "A flatter life-cycle consumption profile," NIPE Working Papers 01/2019, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
    2. Luís Aguiar-Conraria & Manuel M. F. Martins & Maria Joana Soares, 2019. "The Phillips Curve at 60: time for time and frequency," CEF.UP Working Papers 1902, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    3. Mustapha Olalekan Ojo & Luís Aguiar-Conraria & Maria Joana Soares, 2019. "A Time-Frequency Analysis of Sovereign Debt Contagion in Europe," NIPE Working Papers 11/2019, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Rita Sousa & Luís Francisco Aguiar-Conraria & Maria Joana Soares, 2014. "Carbon and Energy Prices: Surfing the Wavelets of California," NIPE Working Papers 19/2014, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
    2. Sousa, Rita & Aguiar-Conraria, Luís & Soares, Maria Joana, 2014. "Carbon financial markets: A time–frequency analysis of CO2 prices," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 414(C), pages 118-127.
    3. Rita Sousa & Luís Aguiar-Conraria & Maria Joana Soares, 2014. "Carbon Financial Markets: a time-frequency analysis of CO2 price drivers," NIPE Working Papers 03/2014, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
    4. Rita Sousa & Luís Aguiar-Conraria, 2014. "Dynamics of CO2 price drivers," NIPE Working Papers 02/2014, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
    5. Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Nguyen, Duc Khuong & Sousa, Ricardo M., 2014. "What explain the short-term dynamics of the prices of CO2 emissions?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 122-135.
    6. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-552 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Tan, Xueping & Sirichand, Kavita & Vivian, Andrew & Wang, Xinyu, 2020. "How connected is the carbon market to energy and financial markets? A systematic analysis of spillovers and dynamics," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(C).
    8. Balcılar, Mehmet & Demirer, Rıza & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Nguyen, Duc Khuong, 2016. "Risk spillovers across the energy and carbon markets and hedging strategies for carbon risk," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 159-172.
    9. Zhu, Bangzhu & Ye, Shunxin & Han, Dong & Wang, Ping & He, Kaijian & Wei, Yi-Ming & Xie, Rui, 2019. "A multiscale analysis for carbon price drivers," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 202-216.
    10. Huang, Shupei & An, Haizhong & Gao, Xiangyun & Sun, Xiaoqi, 2017. "Do oil price asymmetric effects on the stock market persist in multiple time horizons?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 185(P2), pages 1799-1808.
    11. Lutz, Benjamin Johannes & Pigorsch, Uta & Rotfuß, Waldemar, 2013. "Nonlinearity in cap-and-trade systems: The EUA price and its fundamentals," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 222-232.
    12. Zhu, Bangzhu & Yuan, Lili & Ye, Shunxin, 2019. "Examining the multi-timescales of European carbon market with grey relational analysis and empirical mode decomposition," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 517(C), pages 392-399.
    13. Chang, Kai & Ge, Fangping & Zhang, Chao & Wang, Weihong, 2018. "The dynamic linkage effect between energy and emissions allowances price for regional emissions trading scheme pilots in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 415-425.
    14. Chun Jiang & Yi-Fan Wu & Xiao-Lin Li & Xin Li, 2020. "Time-frequency Connectedness between Coal Market Prices, New Energy Stock Prices and CO 2 Emissions Trading Prices in China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(7), pages 1-1, April.
    15. Huang, Shupei & An, Haizhong & Gao, Xiangyun & Wen, Shaobo & Hao, Xiaoqing, 2017. "The multiscale impact of exchange rates on the oil-stock nexus: Evidence from China and Russia," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 194(C), pages 667-678.
    16. Zhu, Bangzhu & Han, Dong & Chevallier, Julien & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2017. "Dynamic multiscale interactions between European carbon and electricity markets during 2005–2016," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 309-322.
    17. Han, Meng & Ding, Lili & Zhao, Xin & Kang, Wanglin, 2019. "Forecasting carbon prices in the Shenzhen market, China: The role of mixed-frequency factors," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 171(C), pages 69-76.
    18. Wenjun Chu & Shanglei Chai & Xi Chen & Mo Du, 2020. "Does the Impact of Carbon Price Determinants Change with the Different Quantiles of Carbon Prices? Evidence from China ETS Pilots," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(14), pages 1-1, July.
    19. Huang, Shupei & An, Haizhong & Gao, Xiangyun & Hao, Xiaoqing, 2016. "Unveiling heterogeneities of relations between the entire oil–stock interaction and its components across time scales," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 70-80.
    20. Reboredo, Juan C. & Rivera-Castro, Miguel A. & Ugolini, Andrea, 2017. "Wavelet-based test of co-movement and causality between oil and renewable energy stock prices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 241-252.
    21. Huang, Shupei & An, Haizhong & Gao, Xiangyun & Huang, Xuan, 2016. "Time–frequency featured co-movement between the stock and prices of crude oil and gold," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 444(C), pages 985-995.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Multivariate wavelet analysis; partial wavelet gain; partial wavelet coherency; carbon market; energy prices; California ETS.;
    All these keywords.

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nip:nipewp:13/2017. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (NIPE). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nipampt.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.