International Franchising: Evidence from US and Canadian Franchisors in Mexico
The contracting practices of franchisors outside of theirdomestic markets have received limited attention in the empirical literature on franchising, mostly due to data limitations. We exploit a newly assembled data set that allows us not only to describe the contracting practices of US and Canadian franchisors in Mexico but, most importantly, to compare them to their domestic counterparts. We briefly but systematically review the two theoretical frameworks that have been used most to study franchisors' domestic and international operations, namely agency and internationalization theory, and use implications derived from these to guide our analyses. We focus in turn on franchisors' decision to operate in the Mexican market, their propensity to enter via company-owned versus franchised units as compared to the same decision domestically, and finally the financial contract terms they adopt (royalty rate, franchise fee and advertising fee) for their franchise agreements in Mexico compared to their home market. Our empirical results confirm hypotheses derived from the theories, particularly with respect to the decision to operate in Mexico. But we also find some surprises - for example, the vast majority of US and Canadian franchisors employ exactly the same financial contract terms in Mexico as in their home market. We argue that this tendency is probably best explained by the same arguments used in the franchising literature to explain contract uniformity within domestic markets. Further implications for future research and practice are also discussed.
|Date of creation:||Mar 2001|
|Publication status:||published as Francine Lafontaine & Joanne E. Oxley, 2004. "International Franchising Practices in Mexico: Do Franchisors Customize Their Contracts?," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 13(1), pages 95-123, 03.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.|
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Shane, Scott A., 1996. "Why franchise companies expand overseas," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 73-88, March.
- Norton, Seth W, 1988. "An Empirical Look at Franchising as an Organizational Form," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 61(2), pages 197-218, April.
- Lyons, Bruce R, 1996. "Empirical Relevance of Efficient Contract Theory: Inter-firm Contracts," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 12(4), pages 27-52, Winter.
- Fladmoe-Lindquist, Karin, 1996. "International franchising: Capabilities and development," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(5), pages 419-438, September.
- Farok J Contractor & Sumit K Kundu, 1998. "Modal Choice in a World of Alliances: Analyzing Organizational Forms in the International Hotel Sector," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 29(2), pages 325-356, June.
- Gallini, Nancy T & Lutz, Nancy A, 1992. "Dual Distribution and Royalty Fees in Franchising," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(3), pages 471-501, October.
- Donald W Hackett, 1976. "The International Expansion of U.S. Franchise Systems: Status and Strategies," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 7(1), pages 65-76, March.
- Raymond Vernon, 1966. "International Investment and International Trade in the Product Cycle," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 80(2), pages 190-207.
- Michael, Steven C., 1996. "To franchise or not to franchise: An analysis of decision rights and organizational form shares," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 57-71, January.
- Brickley, James A. & Dark, Frederick H., 1987. "The choice of organizational form The case of franchising," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 401-420, June.
- Karin Fladmoe-Lindquist & Laurent L. Jacque, 1995. "Control Modes in International Service Operations: The Propensity to Franchise," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 41(7), pages 1238-1249, July.
- M Krishna Erramilli, 1991. "The Experience Factor in Foreign Market Entry Behavior of Service Firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 22(3), pages 479-501, September.
- Rubin, Paul H, 1978. "The Theory of the Firm and the Structure of the Franchise Contract," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 223-233, April.
- Arnold K Weinstein, 1977. "Foreign Investments by Service Firms: The Case of Multinational Advertising Agencies," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 8(1), pages 83-91, March.
- Francine Lafontaine, 1992. "Agency Theory and Franchising: Some Empirical Results," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 23(2), pages 263-283, Summer.
- Lafontaine, Francine & Slade, Margaret E, 1997.
"Retail Contracting: Theory and Practice,"
Journal of Industrial Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(1), pages 1-25, March.
- Thompson, R. Steve, 1994. "The franchise life cycle and the Penrose effect," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 207-218, July.
- Minkler, Alanson P., 1990. "An empirical analysis of a firm's decision to franchise," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 77-82, September.
- Mathewson, G Frank & Winter, Ralph A, 1985. "The Economics of Franchise Contracts," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(3), pages 503-526, October.
- Bruce Kogut & Harbir Singh, 1988. "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(3), pages 411-432, September.
- William H Davidson, 1980. "The Location of Foreign Direct Investment Activity: Country Characteristics and Experience Effects," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 11(2), pages 9-22, June.
- Sugato Bhattacharyya & Francine Lafontaine, 1995. "Double-Sided Moral Hazard and the Nature of Share Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(4), pages 761-781, Winter.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8179. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.