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Family and Government Insurance: Wage, Earnings, and Income Risks in the Netherlands and the U.S

Author

Listed:
  • Mariacristina De Nardi
  • Giulio Fella
  • Marike G. Knoef
  • Gonzalo Paz-Pardo
  • Raun Van Ooijen

Abstract

We document new facts on the dynamics of male wages and earnings, household earnings, and before- and after-tax income in the Netherlands and the United States. We find that, in both countries, earnings display rich dynamics, including substantial asymmetries and nonlinearities by age and previous earnings levels. Most of these dynamics, particularly in the Netherlands, are related to fluctuations in hours worked rather than in wages. Individual-level male wage and earnings risk is relatively high at the beginning and end of one’s working life, and for those in the lower and upper parts of the income distribution. In the Netherlands, government transfers are a major source of insurance. They have notable effects on the standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis of income changes. In the U.S. the role of family insurance is much larger than in the Netherlands. Family and government insurance reduce, but do not eliminate non-linearities in household disposable income by age and previous earnings in both countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Mariacristina De Nardi & Giulio Fella & Marike G. Knoef & Gonzalo Paz-Pardo & Raun Van Ooijen, 2019. "Family and Government Insurance: Wage, Earnings, and Income Risks in the Netherlands and the U.S," NBER Working Papers 25832, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:25832
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Mariacristina De Nardi & Giulio Fella & Gonzalo Paz-Pardo, 2020. "Nonlinear Household Earnings Dynamics, Self-Insurance, and Welfare," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 18(2), pages 890-926.
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    7. Manuel Arellano & Richard Blundell & Stéphane Bonhomme, 2017. "Earnings and Consumption Dynamics: A Nonlinear Panel Data Framework," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 85, pages 693-734, May.
    8. Adriaan Kalwij & Arie Kapteyn & Klaas de Vos, 2018. "Why Are People Working Longer in the Netherlands?," NBER Chapters, in: Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Working Longer, pages 179-204, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Elin Halvorsen & Hans Holter & Kjetil Storesletten & Serdar Ozkan, 2019. "Dissecting Idiosyncratic Income Risk," 2019 Meeting Papers 1337, Society for Economic Dynamics.
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    JEL classification:

    • H31 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - Household

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