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The Wage Effects of Immigration and Emigration

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  • Frédéric Docquier
  • Çaǧlar Özden
  • Giovanni Peri

Abstract

In this paper, we simulate the long-run effects of migrant flows on wages of high-skilled and low-skilled non-migrants in a set of countries using an aggregate model of national economies. New in this literature we calculate the wage effect of emigration as well as immigration. We focus on Europe and compare the outcomes for large Western European countries with those of other key destination countries both in the OECD and outside the OECD. Our analysis builds on an improved database of bilateral stocks and net migration flows of immigrants and emigrants by education level for the years 1990 through 2000. We find that all European countries experienced a decrease in their average wages and a worsening of their wage inequality because of emigration. Whereas, contrary to the popular belief, immigration had nearly equal but opposite effects: positive on average wages and reducing wage inequality of non-movers. These patterns hold true using a range of parameters for our simulations, accounting for the estimates of undocumented immigrants, and correcting for the quality of schooling and/or labor-market downgrading of skills. In terms of wage outcomes, it follows that prevalent public fears in European countries are misplaced; immigration has had a positive average wage effect on native workers. Some concerns should be focused on the wage effect of emigration, instead.

Suggested Citation

  • Frédéric Docquier & Çaǧlar Özden & Giovanni Peri, 2010. "The Wage Effects of Immigration and Emigration," NBER Working Papers 16646, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:16646
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    Cited by:

    1. E. Podrecca & G. Rossini, 2012. "Wages and international factors’ mobility," Working Papers wp826, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
    2. repec:wsi:wschap:9789814719902_0010 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Dequiedt, Vianney & Zenou, Yves, 2013. "International migration, imperfect information, and brain drain," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 62-78.
    4. Andri Chassamboulli & Theodore Palivos, 2014. "A Search‐Equilibrium Approach To The Effects Of Immigration On Labor Market Outcomes," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 55, pages 111-129, February.
    5. Dramane Coulibaly & Blaise Gnimassoun & Valérie Mignon, 2016. "Growth-enhancing effect of openness to trade and migrations: What is the effective transmission channel for Africa?," EconomiX Working Papers 2016-39, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    6. Harry P. Bowen & Jennifer Pédussel Wu, 2013. "Immigrant Specificity and the Relationship between Trade and Immigration: Theory and Evidence," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 366-384, October.
    7. Moritz Bonn, 2011. "The Effects of High Skilled Immigration in a Dual Labour Market with Union Wage Setting and Fiscal Redistribution," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201121, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
    8. Elsner, Benjamin, 2013. "Emigration and wages: The EU enlargement experiment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 154-163.
    9. Peri, Giovanni & D'Amuri, Francesco, 2010. "Immigration, Jobs and Employment Protection: Evidence from Europe," Institute of European Studies, Working Paper Series qt9rp2j8m1, Institute of European Studies, UC Berkeley.
    10. Francesc Ortega & Giovanni Peri, 2012. "The Effect of Trade and Migration on Income," Working Papers 1213, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
    11. Bertoli, Simone & Fernández-Huertas Moraga, Jesús, 2013. "Multilateral resistance to migration," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 79-100.
    12. repec:bla:worlde:v:40:y:2017:i:6:p:1068-1088 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Rosa Sanchis-Guarner, 2014. "First-Come First-Served: Identifying the Demand Effect of Immigration Inflows on House Prices," SERC Discussion Papers 0160, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
    14. Francesc Ortega & Giovanni Peri, 2016. "Openness and income: The roles of trade and migration," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: The Economics of International Migration, chapter 10, pages 309-329 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    15. Michael A. Clemens, 2011. "Economics and Emigration: Trillion-Dollar Bills on the Sidewalk?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 25(3), pages 83-106, Summer.
    16. repec:ces:ifodic:v:9:y:2012:i:4:p:17567553 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Vincent Fromentin & Olivier Damette & Benteng Zou, 2017. "The Global Economic Crisis and The Effect of Immigrant Workers on Native-born Employment in Europe," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(6), pages 1068-1088, June.
    18. Giovanni Peri, 2012. "Immigration and Europe’s Demographic Problems: Analysis and Policy Considerations," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 9(4), pages 03-08, 02.
    19. Alessandra Venturini, 2012. "Methodological Aspects of Research on Flows Human Capital Flows: A survey," RSCAS Working Papers carim2012/01, European University Institute.
    20. Moritz Bonn, 2011. "High Skilled Immigration Policy and Union Wage Setting," Volkswirtschaftliche Diskussionsbeiträge 147-11, Universität Siegen, Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Wirtschaftsinformatik und Wirtschaftsrecht, revised 27 Aug 2012.
    21. Armando J. Garcia Pires, 2015. "Brain Drain And Brain Waste," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 40(1), pages 1-34, March.
    22. Giovanni Peri, 2011. "The Impact of Immigration on Native Poverty through Labor Market Competition," NBER Working Papers 17570, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    23. Giorgio Liotti & Salvatore Villani, 2014. "The equalising power of internal immigration and the desertification process of southern Italy," STUDI ECONOMICI, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2014(114), pages 51-77.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

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