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The Micro-Macro Disconnect of Purchasing Power Parity


  • Paul R. Bergin
  • Reuven Glick
  • Jyh-Lin Wu


This paper reconciles the persistence of aggregate real exchange rates with the faster adjustment of international relative prices in microeconomic data. Panel estimation of an error correction model using a micro data set uncovers new stylized facts regarding this puzzle. First, adjustment to purchasing power parity deviations in aggregated data is not just a slower version of adjustment to the law of one price in microeconomic data, as arbitrage occurs in different markets, in response to distinct macroeconomic and microeconomic shocks. Second, when half-lives are estimated conditional on macro shocks, micro relative prices exhibit just as much persistence as aggregate real exchange rates. These results challenge theories of real exchange rate persistence based on sticky prices and on heterogeneity across goods, and support an explanation based on the presence of distinct macro and microeconomic shocks.

Suggested Citation

  • Paul R. Bergin & Reuven Glick & Jyh-Lin Wu, 2009. "The Micro-Macro Disconnect of Purchasing Power Parity," NBER Working Papers 15624, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:15624
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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Christian Broda & David E. Weinstein, 2008. "Understanding International Price Differences Using Barcode Data," NBER Working Papers 14017, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Jean Imbs & Haroon Mumtaz & Morten O. Ravn & Hélène Rey, 2005. "PPP Strikes Back: Aggregation And the Real Exchange Rate," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(1), pages 1-43.
    3. Shiu-Sheng Chen & Charles Engel, 2005. "Does 'Aggregation Bias' Explain The Ppp Puzzle?," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(1), pages 49-72, February.
    4. Bartosz Mackowiak & Mirko Wiederholt, 2009. "Optimal Sticky Prices under Rational Inattention," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(3), pages 769-803, June.
    5. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
    6. Mario J. Crucini & Chris I. Telmer & Marios Zachariadis, 2005. "Understanding European Real Exchange Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(3), pages 724-738, June.
    7. Jón Steinsson, 2008. "The Dynamic Behavior of the Real Exchange Rate in Sticky Price Models," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(1), pages 519-533, March.
    8. David C. Parsley & Shang-Jin Wei, 1996. "Convergence to the Law of One Price Without Trade Barriers or Currency Fluctuations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(4), pages 1211-1236.
    9. Charles Engel & John H. Rogers, 2004. "European product market integration after the euro," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 19(39), pages 347-384, July.
    10. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Lai, Kon S. & Bergman, Michael, 2004. "Dissecting the PPP puzzle: the unconventional roles of nominal exchange rate and price adjustments," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 135-150, October.
    11. David Parsley Shang-Jin Wei, 2002. "Currency Arrangements And Goods Market Integration: A Price Based Approach," International Finance 0211004, EconWPA.
    12. Crucini, Mario J. & Shintani, Mototsugu, 2008. "Persistence in law of one price deviations: Evidence from micro-data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 629-644, April.
    13. Fisher, Eric O'N & Park, Joon Y, 1991. "Testing Purchasing Power Parity under the Null Hypothesis of Co-integration," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(409), pages 1476-1484, November.
    14. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2006. "Estimation and Inference in Large Heterogeneous Panels with a Multifactor Error Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(4), pages 967-1012, July.
    15. Jyh-Lin Wu & Pei-Fen Chen & Ching-Nun Lee, 2009. "Purchasing Power Parity, Productivity Differentials And Non-Linearity," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 77(3), pages 271-287, June.
    16. Charles Engel & James Morley, 2000. "The Adjustment of Prices and the Adjustment of the Exchange Rate," Working Papers 0009, University of Washington, Department of Economics.
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    Cited by:

    1. Andrade, Philippe & Zachariadis, Marios, 2016. "Global versus local shocks in micro price dynamics," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 78-92.
    2. Bergin, Paul R. & Glick, Reuven & Wu, Jyh-Lin, 2014. "Mussa redux and conditional PPP," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 101-114.
    3. Bergin, Paul R. & Glick, Reuven & Wu, Jyh-Lin, 2017. "“Conditional PPP” and real exchange rate convergence in the euro area," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 73(PA), pages 78-92.
    4. Strasser, Georg, 2013. "Exchange rate pass-through and credit constraints," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 25-38.
    5. Michele Ca’ Zorzi & Jakub Muck & Michal Rubaszek, 2016. "Real Exchange Rate Forecasting and PPP: This Time the Random Walk Loses," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 585-609, July.
    6. repec:eee:ecolet:v:158:y:2017:i:c:p:62-66 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Crucini, Mario J. & Shintani, Mototsugu & Tsuruga, Takayuki, 2013. "Do sticky prices increase real exchange rate volatility at the sector level?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 58-72.
    8. Daniel M. Bernhofen & Markus Eberhardt & Jianan Li & Stephen Morgan, 2015. "Assessing Market (Dis)Integration in Early Modern China and Europe," CESifo Working Paper Series 5580, CESifo Group Munich.
    9. Ca’ Zorzi, Michele & Kolasa, Marcin & Rubaszek, Michał, 2017. "Exchange rate forecasting with DSGE models," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 127-146.
    10. M. Ege Yazgan & Hakan Yilmazkuday, 2016. "High versus low inflation: implications for price-level convergence," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 50(4), pages 1527-1563, June.
    11. Marina Glushenkova & Andros Kourtellos & Marios Zachariadis, 2016. "Barriers to price convergence," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 02-2016, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
    12. Nicolas Cachanosky, 2014. "The Mises-Hayek business cycle theory, fiat currencies and open economies," The Review of Austrian Economics, Springer;Society for the Development of Austrian Economics, vol. 27(3), pages 281-299, September.

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    JEL classification:

    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance


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