IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/10015.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Addicted to Dollars

Author

Listed:
  • Carmen M. Reinhart
  • Kenneth S. Rogoff
  • Miguel A. Savastano

Abstract

Dollarization, in a broad sense, is increasingly a defining characteristic of many emerging market economies. How important is this trend quantitatively and how important is it for the conduct of monetary policy and the choice of exchange rate regimes? Though these questions have become a hot topic in both the theory and policy literature, most efforts are remarkably uninformed by evidence, in no small part because meaningful data has been lacking, except for a very narrow range of assets. This paper attempts to move the discussion forward and shed light on the critical questions by proposing a measure of dollarization that is broad both conceptually and in terms of country coverage. We use this measure to identify trends in the evolution of dollarization in the developing world in the last two decades, and to ascertain the consequences that dollarization has had on the effectiveness of monetary and exchange rate policy. We find that, contrary to the general presumption in the literature, a high degree of dollarization does not seem to be an obstacle to monetary control or to disinflation. A level of dollarization does, however, appear to increase exchange rate pass-through, reinforcing the claim that fear of floating' is a greater problem for highly dollarized economies. We also review the developing countries' record in combating their addiction to dollars. Concretely, we try to explain why some countries have been able to avoid certain forms of the addiction, and examine the evidence on successful de-dollarization.

Suggested Citation

  • Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff & Miguel A. Savastano, 2003. "Addicted to Dollars," NBER Working Papers 10015, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:10015
    Note: IFM
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w10015.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    • Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff & Miguel A. Savastano, 2003. "Addicted to Dollars," CEMA Working Papers 594, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kenneth Rogoff, 1985. "The Optimal Degree of Commitment to an Intermediate Monetary Target," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 100(4), pages 1169-1189.
    2. Eduardo Levy Yeyati, 2003. "Financial Dedollarization: A Carrot and Stick Approach," Business School Working Papers nueve, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella.
    3. Robert J. Barro & David B. Gordon, 2019. "A Positive Theory of Monetary Policy in a Natural Rate Model," Credit and Capital Markets, Credit and Capital Markets, vol. 52(4), pages 505-525.
    4. Guillermo A. Calvo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2002. "Fear of Floating," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(2), pages 379-408.
    5. Gil Bufman & Leonardo Leidennan, 1995. "Israel's Stabilization: Some Important Policy Lessons," NBER Chapters, in: Reform, Recovery, and Growth: Latin America and the Middle East, pages 177-222, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Mr. Charles Collyns & Mr. G. Russell Kincaid, 2003. "Managing Financial Crises: Recent Experience and Lessons for Latin America," IMF Occasional Papers 2003/001, International Monetary Fund.
    7. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff & Miguel A. Savastano, 2003. "Debt Intolerance," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 34(1), pages 1-74.
    8. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2004. "The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: A Reinterpretation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 1-48.
    9. Mr. Alain Ize & Mr. Eduardo Levy Yeyati, 1998. "Dollarization of Financial Intermediation: Causes and Policy Implications," IMF Working Papers 1998/028, International Monetary Fund.
    10. Rudiger Dornbusch & Sebastian Edwards, 1995. "Reform, Recovery, and Growth: Latin America and the Middle East," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number dorn95-1.
    11. Neil R. Ericsson & Steven B. Kamin, 1993. "Dollarization in Argentina," International Finance Discussion Papers 460, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    12. Alex Cukierman, 1992. "Central Bank Strategy, Credibility, and Independence: Theory and Evidence," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262031981, April.
    13. Mr. Johannes Mueller, 1994. "Dollarization in Lebanon," IMF Working Papers 1994/129, International Monetary Fund.
    14. Edgar L. Feige, 2005. "Overseas Holdings Of U.S.Currency And The Underground Economy," Macroeconomics 0501022, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Mr. Miguel A Savastano, 1996. "Dollarization in Latin America: Recent Evidence and Some Policy Issues," IMF Working Papers 1996/004, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Luis Felipe Céspedes & Roberto Chang & Andrés Velasco, 2004. "Balance Sheets and Exchange Rate Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(4), pages 1183-1193, September.
    17. Pablo E. Guidotti & Carlos A. Rodriguez, 1992. "Dollarization in Latin America: Gresham's Law in Reverse?," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(3), pages 518-544, September.
    18. Mr. Gianni De Nicolo & Mr. Alain Ize & Mr. Patrick Honohan, 2003. "Dollarization of the Banking System: Good or Bad?," IMF Working Papers 2003/146, International Monetary Fund.
    19. Oleh Havrylyshyn & Christian H Beddies, 2003. "Dollarisation in the Former Soviet Union: from Hysteria to Hysteresis," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 45(3), pages 329-357, September.
    20. Mr. Adam Bennett & Mr. Eduardo Borensztein & Mr. Tomás J. T. Baliño, 1999. "Monetary Policy in Dollarized Economies," IMF Occasional Papers 1999/003, International Monetary Fund.
    21. Fernando Lefort & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, 2002. "Indexation, Inflation and Monetary Policy: An Overview," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Fernando Lefort & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (Serie (ed.),Indexation, Inflation and MOnetary Policy, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 1, pages 001-018, Central Bank of Chile.
    22. Edwards, Sebastian, 2001. "Dollarization: Myths and realities," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 249-265, April.
    23. Calvo, Guillermo & Vegh, Carlos, 1992. "Currency Substitution in Developing Countries: An Introduction," MPRA Paper 20338, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    24. Eduardo Borensztein & Andrew Berg, 2000. "Full Dollarization; The Pros and Cons," IMF Economic Issues 24, International Monetary Fund.
    25. Mr. Eduardo Borensztein & Mr. Andrew Berg, 2000. "The Pros and Cons of Full Dollarization," IMF Working Papers 2000/050, International Monetary Fund.
    26. Morris Goldstein & Philip Turner, 2004. "Controlling Currency Mismatches in Emerging Markets," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 373, July.
    27. Uribe, Martin, 1997. "Hysteresis in a simple model of currency substitution," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 185-202, September.
    28. Salvatore, Dominick & Dean, James W. & Willett, Thomas D. (ed.), 2003. "The Dollarization Debate," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195155365.
    29. Frederic S. Mishkin, 1995. "Symposium on the Monetary Transmission Mechanism," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 3-10, Fall.
    30. Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo, 2000. "When Capital Inflows Come to a Sudden Stop: Consequences and Policy Options," MPRA Paper 6982, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    31. Honohan, Patrick & Shi, Anging, 2001. "Deposit dollarization and the financial sector in emerging economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2748, The World Bank.
    32. Paul R. Masson & Miguel A. Savastano & Sunil Sharma, 2019. "The Scope for Inflation Targeting in Developing Countries," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Macroeconomic Modelling and Monetary and Exchange Rate Regimes, chapter 10, pages 331-383, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    33. Bufman, G. & Leiderman, L., 1992. "Simulating an Optimizing Model of Currency Substitution," Papers 6-92, Tel Aviv - the Sackler Institute of Economic Studies.
    34. Mr. Brad Setser & Mr. Mark Allen & Mr. Christian Keller & Mr. Christoph B. Rosenberg & Nouriel Roubini, 2002. "A Balance Sheet Approach to Financial Crisis," IMF Working Papers 2002/210, International Monetary Fund.
    35. Steven B. Kamin, 1998. "A multi-country comparison of the linkages between inflation and exchange rate competitiveness," International Finance Discussion Papers 603, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    36. Mr. Eduardo Borensztein & Mr. Andrew Berg, 2000. "Full Dollarization: The Pros and Cons," IMF Economic Issues 2000/004, International Monetary Fund.
    37. Susan Pozo (ed.), 1996. "Exploring the Underground Economy," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number eue.
    38. Ortiz, Guillermo, 1983. "Currency Substitution in Mexico: The Dollarization Problem," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 15(2), pages 174-185, May.
    39. Rudiger Dornbusch & Alejandro Werner, 1994. "Mexico: Stabilization, Reform, and No Growth," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 25(1), pages 253-316.
    40. Thomas, Lee R, 1985. "Portfolio Theory and Currency Substitution," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 17(3), pages 347-357, August.
    41. Nienke Oomes, 2003. "Network Externalities and Dollarization Hysteresis: The Case of Russia," IMF Working Papers 2003/096, International Monetary Fund.
    42. Joannes Mongardini & Johannes Mueller, 2000. "Ratchet Effects in Currency Substitution: An Application to the Kyrgyz Republic," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 47(2), pages 1-3.
    43. Ricardo J. Caballero & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2000. "Dollarization of Liabilities: Underinsurance and Domestic Financial Underdevelopment," NBER Working Papers 7792, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff & Miguel A. Savastano, 2014. "Addicted to Dollars," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 15(1), pages 1-50, May.
    2. Kyriakos C. Neanidis & Christos S. Savva, 2006. "The Effects of Uncertainty on Currency Substitution and Inflation: Evidence from Emerging Economies," Economics Discussion Paper Series 0609, Economics, The University of Manchester.
    3. Metin-Özcan, Kıvılcım & Us, Vuslat, 2007. "Dedollarization in Turkey after decades of dollarization: A myth or reality?," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 385(1), pages 292-306.
    4. Jean-François Goux & Charbel Cordahi, 2007. "The international transmission of monetary shocks in a dollarized economy: The case of USA and Lebanon," Post-Print halshs-00174466, HAL.
    5. Shinkevich Andrey, 2002. "Dollarization Hysteresis in Russia," EERC Working Paper Series 00-087e, EERC Research Network, Russia and CIS.
    6. Frankel, Jeffrey, 2010. "Monetary Policy in Emerging Markets," Handbook of Monetary Economics, in: Benjamin M. Friedman & Michael Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 25, pages 1439-1520, Elsevier.
    7. Eduardo Levy Yeyati, 2006. "Financial dollarization: evaluating the consequences [‘A simple model of monetary policy and currency crises’]," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 21(45), pages 62-118.
    8. Marcelin, Isaac & Mathur, Ike, 2016. "Financial sector development and dollarization in emerging economies," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 20-32.
    9. Anna Krupkina & Alexey Ponomarenko, 2017. "Deposit dollarization in emerging markets: modelling the hysteresis effect," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 41(4), pages 794-805, October.
    10. Nienke Oomes, 2003. "Network Externalities and Dollarization Hysteresis: The Case of Russia," IMF Working Papers 2003/096, International Monetary Fund.
    11. John Duffy & Maxim Nikitin, 2004. "Dollarization Traps," Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings 196, Econometric Society.
    12. Heimonen, Kari, 2001. "Substituting a substitute currency : The case of Estonia," BOFIT Discussion Papers 11/2001, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
    13. Akhand Akhtar Hossain, 2009. "Central Banking and Monetary Policy in the Asia-Pacific," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 12777.
    14. Dean, James W., 2001. "Should Latin America's common law marriages to the US dollar be legalized? Should Canada's?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 291-300, April.
    15. Graham Bird & Ramkishen Rajan, 2002. "Optimal currency baskets and the third currency phenomenon: exchange rate policy in Southeast Asia," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(8), pages 1053-1073.
    16. Kamin, Steven B. & Ericsson, Neil R., 2003. "Dollarization in post-hyperinflationary Argentina," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 185-211, April.
    17. Roberto Duncan, 2003. "Exploring the Implications of Official Dollarization on Macroeconomic Volatility," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 200, Central Bank of Chile.
    18. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 2010. "Monetary Policy in Emerging Markets: A Survey," NBER Working Papers 16125, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. International Monetary Fund, 2002. "Macroeconomic Adjustment in a Highly Dollarized Economy: The Case of Cambodia," IMF Working Papers 2002/092, International Monetary Fund.
    20. Owen F. Humpage, 2002. "An incentive-compatible suggestion for seigniorage sharing with dollarizing countries," Policy Discussion Papers, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Jun.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:10015. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.