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Agglomeration Elasticities in New Zealand

Author

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  • David C. Maré

    () (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)

  • Daniel J. Graham

    () (Centre for Transport Studies, Imperial College, London)

Abstract

This paper analyses the relationship between firms’ multi-factor productivity and the effective employment density of the areas where they operate. Quantifying these agglomeration elasticities is of central importance in the evaluation of the wider economic benefits of transport investments. We estimate agglomeration elasticities using the Statistics New Zealand prototype Longitudinal Business Database: a firm-level panel covering the period 1999 to 2006. We estimate that an area with 10 percent higher effective density has firms with productivity that is 0.69 percent higher, once we control for the industry specific production functions and sorting of more productive firms across industries and locations. We present separate estimates of agglomeration elasticities for specific industries and regions, and examine the interaction of agglomeration with capital, labour, and other inputs.

Suggested Citation

  • David C. Maré & Daniel J. Graham, 2009. "Agglomeration Elasticities in New Zealand," Working Papers 09_06, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:mtu:wpaper:09_06
    as

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    File URL: http://motu-www.motu.org.nz/wpapers/09_06.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Duranton, Gilles & Puga, Diego, 2004. "Micro-foundations of urban agglomeration economies," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics,in: J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 48, pages 2063-2117 Elsevier.
    2. Randall W. Eberts & Daniel P. McMillen, 1999. "Agglomeration Economies and Urban Public Infrastructure," Book chapters authored by Upjohn Institute researchers,in: Paul Cheshire & Edwin S. Mills (ed.), handbook or Regional and Urban Economics, volume 3, pages 1455-1495 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
    3. David C. Maré, 2008. "Labour Productivity in Auckland Firms," Working Papers 08_12, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
    4. Ciccone, Antonio & Hall, Robert E, 1996. "Productivity and the Density of Economic Activity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 54-70, March.
    5. Anthony J. Venables, 2007. "Evaluating Urban Transport Improvements: Cost-Benefit Analysis in the Presence of Agglomeration and Income Taxation," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 41(2), pages 173-188, May.
    6. Ackerberg, Daniel & Caves, Kevin & Frazer, Garth, 2006. "Structural identification of production functions," MPRA Paper 38349, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Olley, G Steven & Pakes, Ariel, 1996. "The Dynamics of Productivity in the Telecommunications Equipment Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(6), pages 1263-1297, November.
    8. Rosenthal, Stuart S. & Strange, William C., 2004. "Evidence on the nature and sources of agglomeration economies," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics,in: J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 49, pages 2119-2171 Elsevier.
    9. Williamson, John & Paling, Richard & Staheli, Ramon & Waite, David, 2008. "Assessing Agglomeration Impacts in Auckland: Phase 2," Occasional Papers 08/6, Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand.
    10. Melo, Patricia C. & Graham, Daniel J. & Noland, Robert B., 2009. "A meta-analysis of estimates of urban agglomeration economies," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 332-342, May.
    11. James Levinsohn & Amil Petrin, 2003. "Estimating Production Functions Using Inputs to Control for Unobservables," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(2), pages 317-341.
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    Cited by:

    1. David C. Maré, 2016. "Urban Productivity Estimation with Heterogeneous Prices and Labour," Working Papers 16_21, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
    2. Maré, David C. & Graham, Daniel J., 2013. "Agglomeration elasticities and firm heterogeneity," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 44-56.
    3. David C. Maré & Andrew Coleman, 2011. "Patterns of business location in Auckland," Working Papers 11_08, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
    4. Truong, Truong P. & Hensher, David A., 2012. "Linking discrete choice to continuous demand within the framework of a computable general equilibrium model," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 46(9), pages 1177-1201.
    5. repec:eee:retrec:v:66:y:2017:i:c:p:36-45 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Agglomeration; urban density; transport evaluation; productivity;

    JEL classification:

    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
    • R3 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location
    • R40 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - General

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