IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/msh/ebswps/2013-22.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Estimating Smooth Structural Change in Cointegration Models

Author

Listed:
  • Peter C. B. Phillips
  • Degui Li
  • Jiti Gao

Abstract

This paper studies nonlinear cointegration models in which the structural coefficients may evolve smoothly over time. These time-varying coefficient functions are well-suited to many practical applications and can be estimated conveniently by nonparametric kernel methods. It is shown that the usual asymptotic methods of kernel estimation completely break down in this setting when the functional coefficients are multivariate. The reason for this breakdown is a kernel-induced degeneracy in the weighted signal matrix associated with the nonstationary regressors, a new phenomenon in the kernel regression literature. Some new techniques are developed to address the degeneracy and resolve the asymptotics, using a path-dependent local coordinate transformation to re-orient coordinates and accommodate the degeneracy. The resulting asymptotic theory is fundamentally different from the existing kernel literature, giving two different limit distributions with different convergence rates in the different directions (or combinations) of the (functional) parameter space. Both rates are faster than the usual (√nh) rate for nonlinear models with smoothly changing coefficients and local stationarity. Hence two types of super-consistency apply in nonparametric kernel estimation of time-varying coefficient cointegration models. The higher rate of convergence (n√h) lies in the direction of the nonstationary regressor vector at the local coordinate point. The lower rate (nh) lies in the degenerate directions but is still super-consistent for nonparametric estimators. In addition, local linear methods are used to reduce asymptotic bias and a fully modified kernel regression method is proposed to deal with the general endogenous nonstationary regressor case. Simulations are conducted to explore the finite sample properties of the methods and a practical application is given to examine time varying empirical relationships involving consumption, disposable income, investment and real interest rates.

Suggested Citation

  • Peter C. B. Phillips & Degui Li & Jiti Gao, 2013. "Estimating Smooth Structural Change in Cointegration Models," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 22/13, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  • Handle: RePEc:msh:ebswps:2013-22
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://business.monash.edu/econometrics-and-business-statistics/research/publications/ebs/wp22-13.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ioannis Kasparis & Peter C. B. Phillips & Tassos Magdalinos, 2014. "Nonlinearity Induced Weak Instrumentation," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(5-6), pages 676-712, August.
    2. Peter C. B. Phillips & Donggyu Sul, 2007. "Transition Modeling and Econometric Convergence Tests," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 75(6), pages 1771-1855, November.
    3. Athanasopoulos, George & de Carvalho Guillén, Osmani Teixeira & Issler, João Victor & Vahid, Farshid, 2011. "Model selection, estimation and forecasting in VAR models with short-run and long-run restrictions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 164(1), pages 116-129, September.
    4. Hall, Robert E, 1978. "Stochastic Implications of the Life Cycle-Permanent Income Hypothesis: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(6), pages 971-987, December.
    5. Kasparis, Ioannis & Phillips, Peter C.B., 2012. "Dynamic misspecification in nonparametric cointegrating regression," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 168(2), pages 270-284.
    6. Gao, Jiti, 2007. "Nonlinear time series: semiparametric and nonparametric methods," MPRA Paper 39563, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 Sep 2007.
    7. P. C. B. Phillips & S. N. Durlauf, 1986. "Multiple Time Series Regression with Integrated Processes," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 53(4), pages 473-495.
    8. Phillips, Peter C. B., 2001. "Trending time series and macroeconomic activity: Some present and future challenges," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 21-27, January.
    9. R.W. Faff & R.D. Brooks, 1998. "Time‐varying Beta Risk for Australian Industry Portfolios: An Exploratory Analysis," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(5‐6), pages 721-745, June.
    10. Phillips, P.C.B., 1989. "Partially Identified Econometric Models," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(2), pages 181-240, August.
    11. Wang, Qiying & Phillips, Peter C.B., 2009. "Asymptotic Theory For Local Time Density Estimation And Nonparametric Cointegrating Regression," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 25(3), pages 710-738, June.
    12. Qiying Wang & Peter C. B. Phillips, 2009. "Structural Nonparametric Cointegrating Regression," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(6), pages 1901-1948, November.
    13. Robinson, Peter M, 1988. "Root- N-Consistent Semiparametric Regression," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(4), pages 931-954, July.
    14. Phillips, P C B, 1991. "Optimal Inference in Cointegrated Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 283-306, March.
    15. Pham, Tuan D. & Tran, Lanh T., 1985. "Some mixing properties of time series models," Stochastic Processes and their Applications, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 297-303, April.
    16. Li, Degui & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Gao, Jiti, 2016. "Uniform Consistency Of Nonstationary Kernel-Weighted Sample Covariances For Nonparametric Regression," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(3), pages 655-685, June.
    17. Peter C. B. Phillips & Bruce E. Hansen, 1990. "Statistical Inference in Instrumental Variables Regression with I(1) Processes," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(1), pages 99-125.
    18. Park, Joon Y. & Phillips, Peter C.B., 1989. "Statistical Inference in Regressions with Integrated Processes: Part 2," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(1), pages 95-131, April.
    19. Park, Joon Y. & Phillips, Peter C.B., 1999. "Asymptotics For Nonlinear Transformations Of Integrated Time Series," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(3), pages 269-298, June.
    20. Liang, Hanying & Phillips, Peter C.B. & Wang, Hanchao & Wang, Qiying, 2016. "Weak Convergence To Stochastic Integrals For Econometric Applications," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(6), pages 1349-1375, December.
    21. Peter C. B. Phillips & Jun Yu, 2011. "Dating the timeline of financial bubbles during the subprime crisis," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 2(3), pages 455-491, November.
    22. Phillips, Peter C B, 1995. "Fully Modified Least Squares and Vector Autoregression," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(5), pages 1023-1078, September.
    23. Juhl, Ted & Xiao, Zhijie, 2005. "Partially Linear Models With Unit Roots," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(5), pages 877-906, October.
    24. Park, Joon Y. & Hahn, Sang B., 1999. "Cointegrating Regressions With Time Varying Coefficients," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(5), pages 664-703, October.
    25. Joon-Ho Hahm & Douglas G. Steigerwald, 1999. "Consumption Adjustment under Time-Varying Income Uncertainty," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(1), pages 32-40, February.
    26. Su, Liangjun & Ullah, Aman, 2008. "Local polynomial estimation of nonparametric simultaneous equations models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 144(1), pages 193-218, May.
    27. Jiti Gao & Maxwell King, 2011. "A New Test in Parametric Linear Models against Nonparametric Autoregressive Errors," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 20/11, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    28. Park, Joon Y. & Phillips, Peter C.B., 1988. "Statistical Inference in Regressions with Integrated Processes: Part 1," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(3), pages 468-497, December.
    29. Gylfason, Thorvaldur, 1981. "Interest Rates, Inflation, and the Aggregate Consumption Function," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(2), pages 233-245, May.
    30. Cai, Zongwu, 2007. "Trending time-varying coefficient time series models with serially correlated errors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 136(1), pages 163-188, January.
    31. Qi Li & Jeffrey Scott Racine, 2006. "Nonparametric Econometrics: Theory and Practice," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 8355.
    32. Campbell, John Y & Mankiw, N Gregory, 1990. "Permanent Income, Current Income, and Consumption," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 8(3), pages 265-279, July.
    33. Ibragimov, Rustam & Phillips, Peter C.B., 2008. "Regression Asymptotics Using Martingale Convergence Methods," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(4), pages 888-947, August.
    34. Kunpeng Li & Degui Li & Zhongwen Lian & Cheng Hsiao, 2013. "Semiparametric Profile Likelihood Estimation of Varying Coefficient Models with Nonstationary Regressors," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 2/13, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    35. Terasvirta, Timo & Tjostheim, Dag & Granger, Clive W. J., 2010. "Modelling Nonlinear Economic Time Series," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199587155.
    36. Wang, Qiying & Phillips, Peter C.B., 2011. "Asymptotic Theory For Zero Energy Functionals With Nonparametric Regression Applications," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 27(2), pages 235-259, April.
    37. Phillips, Peter C.B. & Magdalinos, Tassos, 2009. "Unit Root And Cointegrating Limit Theory When Initialization Is In The Infinite Past," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 25(6), pages 1682-1715, December.
    38. Hong, Seung Hyun & Phillips, Peter C. B., 2010. "Testing Linearity in Cointegrating Relations With an Application to Purchasing Power Parity," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 28(1), pages 96-114.
    39. Gao, Jiti & Phillips, Peter C.B., 2013. "Semiparametric estimation in triangular system equations with nonstationarity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 176(1), pages 59-79.
    40. Whitney K. Newey & James L. Powell, 2003. "Instrumental Variable Estimation of Nonparametric Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(5), pages 1565-1578, September.
    41. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    42. Phillips, Peter C.B. & Magdalinos, Tassos, 2008. "Limit Theory For Explosively Cointegrated Systems," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(4), pages 865-887, August.
    43. Park, Joon Y & Phillips, Peter C B, 2001. "Nonlinear Regressions with Integrated Time Series," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(1), pages 117-161, January.
    44. Wang, Qiying & Phillips, Peter C. B., 2016. "Nonparametric Cointegrating Regression With Endogeneity And Long Memory," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(2), pages 359-401, April.
    45. Bin Chen & Yongmiao Hong, 2012. "Testing for Smooth Structural Changes in Time Series Models via Nonparametric Regression," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 80(3), pages 1157-1183, May.
    46. Saikkonen, Pentti, 1995. "Problems with the Asymptotic Theory of Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Integrated and Cointegrated Systems," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(5), pages 888-911, October.
    47. Cai, Zongwu & Li, Qi & Park, Joon Y., 2009. "Functional-coefficient models for nonstationary time series data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 148(2), pages 101-113, February.
    48. Phillips, Peter C.B. & Magdalinos, Tassos, 2013. "Inconsistent Var Regression With Common Explosive Roots," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 29(4), pages 808-837, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Jiti Gao & Peter C.B. Phillips, 2013. "Functional Coefficient Nonstationary Regression," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1911, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    2. Jiti Gao & Peter C.B. Phillips, 2013. "Functional Coefficient Nonstationary Regression with Non- and Semi-Parametric Cointegration," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 16/13, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    3. Li, Degui & Phillips, Peter C.B. & Gao, Jiti, 2020. "Kernel-based Inference in Time-Varying Coefficient Cointegrating Regression," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 215(2), pages 607-632.
    4. Dong, Chaohua & Gao, Jiti & Tjøstheim, Dag & Yin, Jiying, 2017. "Specification testing for nonlinear multivariate cointegrating regressions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 200(1), pages 104-117.
    5. Gao, Jiti & Phillips, Peter C.B., 2013. "Semiparametric estimation in triangular system equations with nonstationarity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 176(1), pages 59-79.
    6. Jiti Gao & Peter C.B. Phillips, 2011. "Semiparametric Estimation in Multivariate Nonstationary Time Series Models," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 17/11, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    7. Kasparis, Ioannis & Andreou, Elena & Phillips, Peter C.B., 2015. "Nonparametric predictive regression," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 185(2), pages 468-494.
    8. Liang, Hanying & Phillips, Peter C.B. & Wang, Hanchao & Wang, Qiying, 2016. "Weak Convergence To Stochastic Integrals For Econometric Applications," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(6), pages 1349-1375, December.
    9. Jia Chen & Jiti Gao & Degui Li & Zhengyan Lin, 2015. "Specification testing in nonstationary time series models," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 18(1), pages 117-136, February.
    10. Luya Wang & Zhongwen Liang & Juan Lin & Qi Li, 2015. "Local Constant Kernel Estimation of a Partially Linear Varying Coefficient Cointegration Model," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 16(2), pages 353-369, November.
    11. Biqing Cai & Jiti Gao & Dag Tjøstheim, 2017. "A New Class of Bivariate Threshold Cointegration Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(2), pages 288-305, April.
    12. Zhishui Hu & Ioannis Kasparis & Qiying Wang, 2020. "Locally trimmed least squares: conventional inference in possibly nonstationary models," Papers 2006.12595, arXiv.org.
    13. Kasparis, Ioannis & Phillips, Peter C.B., 2012. "Dynamic misspecification in nonparametric cointegrating regression," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 168(2), pages 270-284.
    14. Biqing Cai & Chaohua Dong & Jiti Gao, 2015. "Orthogonal Series Estimation in Nonlinear Cointegrating Models with Endogeneity," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 18/15, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    15. Lin, Yingqian & Tu, Yundong & Yao, Qiwei, 2020. "Estimation for double-nonlinear cointegration," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 216(1), pages 175-191.
    16. Lin, Yingqian & Tu, Yundong & Yao, Qiwei, 2020. "Estimation for double-nonlinear cointegration," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 103830, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    17. Dong, Chaohua & Linton, Oliver, 2018. "Additive nonparametric models with time variable and both stationary and nonstationary regressors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 207(1), pages 212-236.
    18. Patrick Saart & Jiti Gao & Nam Hyun Kim, 2014. "Semiparametric methods in nonlinear time series analysis: a selective review," Journal of Nonparametric Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(1), pages 141-169, March.
    19. Wang, Qiying & Wu, Dongsheng & Zhu, Ke, 2018. "Model checks for nonlinear cointegrating regression," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 207(2), pages 261-284.
    20. Linton, Oliver & Wang, Qiying, 2016. "Nonparametric Transformation Regression With Nonstationary Data," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(1), pages 1-29, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Cointegration; Endogeneity; Kernel degeneracy; Nonparametric regression; Super-consistency; Time varying coefficients;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C13 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Estimation: General
    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:msh:ebswps:2013-22. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Professor Xibin Zhang (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dxmonau.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.