IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/lvl/pmmacr/2012-05.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Are there Etchnic Inequality Traps in Education ? Empirical Evidence for Brazil and Chile

Author

Listed:
  • Guillermo Cruces
  • Marcelo Bérgolo
  • Andriana Conconi
  • Andrés Ham

Abstract

This study searches for suggestive evidence of an ethnic inequality trap in educational attainment in Brazil and Chile. The research aims to cover an existing gap in the literature on inequality traps and proposes an empirical approach to assess certain conditions which might imply its existence. The main results indicate that while average education and upward mobility have risen in both countries, ethnic disparities remain significant. In particular, the evidence is suggestive of an educational inequality trap for Afro-Brazilians, while the findings are less conclusive of a trap for indigenous individuals in Chile. These results reflect the need for targeted education policies for ethnic groups in two ways: compensation (or affirmative action) mechanisms to lower current inequality, and increasing demand and supply at higher educational levels to prevent the persistence of low level outcomes and disparities throughout the educational distribution.

Suggested Citation

  • Guillermo Cruces & Marcelo Bérgolo & Andriana Conconi & Andrés Ham, 2012. "Are there Etchnic Inequality Traps in Education ? Empirical Evidence for Brazil and Chile," Working Papers PMMA 2012-05, PEP-PMMA.
  • Handle: RePEc:lvl:pmmacr:2012-05
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://portal.pep-net.org/documents/download/id/18571
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kenneth A. Couch & Thomas A. Dunn, 1997. "Intergenerational Correlations in Labor Market Status: A Comparison of the United States and Germany," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 32(1), pages 210-232.
    2. Viviane M. R. Azevedo & Cesar P. Bouillon, 2010. "Intergenerational Social Mobility in Latin America: A review of existing evidence," Revista de Analisis Economico – Economic Analysis Review, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Business, vol. 25(2), pages 7-42, Diciembre.
    3. Lykke Andersen, 2001. "Social Mobility in Latin America: Links with Adolescent Schooling," Research Department Publications 3130, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    4. Adriana Conconi & Guillermo Cruces & Sergio Olivieri & Raúl Sánchez, 2008. "E pur si muove? Movilidad, pobreza y desigualdad en América Latina," Económica, Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, vol. 0(1-2), pages 121-159, January-D.
    5. Denis Cogneau & Jérémie Gignoux, 2005. "Earnings Inequalities and Educational Mobility in Brazil over Two Decades," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 121, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Agostini, Claudio A. & Brown, Philip H. & Roman, Andrei C., 2010. "Poverty and Inequality Among Ethnic Groups in Chile," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 1036-1046, July.
    7. Daniele Checchi & Vito Peragine, 2010. "Inequality of opportunity in Italy," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 8(4), pages 429-450, December.
    8. Aaberge, Rolf & Mogstad, Magne & Peragine, Vito, 2011. "Measuring long-term inequality of opportunity," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(3), pages 193-204.
    9. Gary S. Becker & Nigel Tomes, 1994. "Human Capital and the Rise and Fall of Families," NBER Chapters, in: Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education, Third Edition, pages 257-298, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Gary S. Field & Robert Duval Hernandez & Samuel Freije & Maria Laura Sanchez Puerta, 2007. "Intragenerational Income Mobility in Latin America," Economía Journal, The Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association - LACEA, vol. 0(Spring 20), pages 101-154, January.
    11. Blumkin, Tomer & Margalioth, Yoram & Sadka, Efraim, 2009. "Incorporating affirmative action into the welfare state," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(9-10), pages 1027-1035, October.
    12. Alejandro Gaviria & Momi Dahan, 1999. "Sibling Correlations and Social Mobility in Latin America," Research Department Publications 4162, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    13. Couch, K.A. & Morand, O.F., 2005. "Inequality, mobility, and the transmission of ability," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 365-377, June.
    14. Cecilia Garcia-Penalosa & Eve Caroli & Philippe Aghion, 1999. "Inequality and Economic Growth: The Perspective of the New Growth Theories," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(4), pages 1615-1660, December.
    15. Pereda, Paula C. & Menezes, Tatiane A. de & Alves, Denisard, 2014. "Climate Change Impacts on Birth Outcomes in Brazil," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 6451, Inter-American Development Bank.
    16. Sebastian Edwards, 2009. "Latin America's Decline: A Long Historical View," NBER Working Papers 15171, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Pablo Celhay & Claudia Sanhueza & Jose R. Zubizarreta, 2010. "Intergenerational Mobility of Income and Schooling: Chile 1996-2006," Revista de Analisis Economico – Economic Analysis Review, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Business, vol. 25(2), pages 43-63, Diciembre.
    18. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jérémie Gignoux, 2011. "The Measurement Of Inequality Of Opportunity: Theory And An Application To Latin America," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 57(4), pages 622-657, December.
    19. Dante Contreras & Osvaldo Larragaña & Esteban Puentes & Tomás Rau, 2009. "Evidence for inequality of Opportunities. A Cohort analysis for Chile," Working Papers wp298, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
    20. Jose Cuesta & Hugo Ñopo & Georgina Pizzolitto, 2011. "Using Pseudo‐Panels To Measure Income Mobility In Latin America," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 57(2), pages 224-246, June.
    21. Dan Andrews & Andrew Leigh, 2009. "More inequality, less social mobility," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(15), pages 1489-1492.
    22. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10091 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Andrade, Eduardo C., 2004. "Quotas in Brazilian Public Universities: Good or Bad Idea?," Revista Brasileira de Economia - RBE, EPGE Brazilian School of Economics and Finance - FGV EPGE (Brazil), vol. 58(4), October.
    24. Bowles, Samuel, 1972. "Schooling and Inequality from Generation to Generation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(3), pages 219-251, Part II, .
    25. Sudhir Anand & Paul Segal, 2008. "What Do We Know about Global Income Inequality?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 46(1), pages 57-94, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Christian Daude & Virginia Robano, 2015. "On intergenerational (im)mobility in Latin America," Latin American Economic Review, Springer;Centro de Investigaciòn y Docencia Económica (CIDE), vol. 24(1), pages 1-29, December.
    2. Chelsea Murray & Robert Graham Clark & Silvia Mendolia & Peter Siminski, 2018. "Direct Measures of Intergenerational Income Mobility for Australia," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 94(307), pages 445-468, December.
    3. Lina Marcela Moyano & Luis Armando Galvis, 2014. "¿Oportunidades para el futuro?: la movilidad social de los adolescentes en Colombia," Documentos de Trabajo Sobre Economía Regional y Urbana 012382, Banco de la República - Economía Regional.
    4. Paolo Brunori & Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Vito Peragine, 2013. "Inequality of Opportunity, Income Inequality, and Economic Mobility: Some International Comparisons," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Eva Paus (ed.), Getting Development Right, chapter 0, pages 85-115, Palgrave Macmillan.
    5. Gustavo A. Marrero & Juan G. Rodriguez, 2014. "Inequality and development: the role of opportunities and free-will," Working Papers 327, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    6. Guido Neidhöfer, 2019. "Intergenerational mobility and the rise and fall of inequality: Lessons from Latin America," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 17(4), pages 499-520, December.
    7. Nestor Gandelam & Virginia Robano, 2014. "Intergenerational Mobility and Entrepreneurship in Uruguay," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 51(2), pages 195-226, November.
    8. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Vito Peragine, 2015. "Equality of opportunity: Theory and evidence," Working Papers 359, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    9. Luis Armando Galvis-Aponte & Adolfo Meisel-Roca, 2016. "Aspectos Regionales de la Movilidad Social y la Igualdad de Oportunidades en Colombia," Revista de Economía del Rosario, Universidad del Rosario, vol. 17(2), pages 257-297, February.
    10. Maurizio Bussolo & Daniele Checchi & Vito Peragine, 2018. "The long term evolution of inequality of opportunity," LIS Working papers 730, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.
    11. Marc Fleurbaey & Vito Peragine, 2013. "Ex Ante Versus Ex Post Equality of Opportunity," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 80(317), pages 118-130, January.
    12. Vito Peragine & Flaviana Palmisano & Paolo Brunori, 2014. "Economic Growth and Equality of Opportunity," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 247-281.
    13. Shi, X., 2018. "Inequality of Opportunity in Earnings in Rural China," 2018 Conference, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia 277016, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    14. Paolo Brunori & Flaviana Palmisano & Vitorocco Peragine, 2019. "Inequality of opportunity in sub-Saharan Africa," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(60), pages 6428-6458, December.
    15. Gandelman, Néstor & Robano, Virginia, 2012. "Intergenerational Mobility, Middle Sectors and Entrepreneurship in Uruguay," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 4032, Inter-American Development Bank.
    16. Singh, Ashish, 2010. "Inequality of opportunity in India," MPRA Paper 32971, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Judith Niehues & Andreas Peichl, 2012. "Bounds of Unfair Inequality of Opportunity: Theory and Evidence for Germany and the US," CESifo Working Paper Series 3815, CESifo.
    18. Aitor Calo-Blanco & J. García-Pérez, 2014. "On the welfare loss caused by inequality of opportunity," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 12(2), pages 221-237, June.
    19. Davillas, Apostolos & Jones, Andrew M, 2020. "Ex ante inequality of opportunity in health, decomposition and distributional analysis of biomarkers," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(C).
    20. Cornelissen Thomas & Jirjahn Uwe & Tsertsvadze Georgi, 2008. "Parental Background and Earnings: German Evidence on Direct and Indirect Relationships," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 228(5-6), pages 554-572, October.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    inequality trap; education; ethnicity; opportunities; mobility; Brazil; Chile;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D3 - Microeconomics - - Distribution
    • I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J62 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Job, Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility; Promotion
    • O54 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Latin America; Caribbean

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lvl:pmmacr:2012-05. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/cdvlvca.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Manuel Paradis (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/cdvlvca.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.