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Market Labor, Household Work and Schooling in South Africa: Modeling the Effects of Trade on Adults' and Children's Time Allocation

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  • Lulit Mitik
  • Bernard Decaluwé

Abstract

This paper analyzes how economic policies can influence parents’ decisions about their children’s schooling, household work and leisure in South Africa. Using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that integrates both market and non-market activities, distinguishing male and female workers on the one hand, and adult and child non-market work and leisure on the other, we find that, in the context of trade liberalization, gender inequality is likely to rise between adults and between boys and girls. Furthermore, the paper notes that the increase in adult male and female market labor supply is made possible through the substitution of children for parents in household work, although more so in some groups than others. These effects sustain in the long run.

Suggested Citation

  • Lulit Mitik & Bernard Decaluwé, 2009. "Market Labor, Household Work and Schooling in South Africa: Modeling the Effects of Trade on Adults' and Children's Time Allocation," Cahiers de recherche 0933, CIRPEE.
  • Handle: RePEc:lvl:lacicr:0933
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    File URL: http://www.cirpee.org/fileadmin/documents/Cahiers_2009/CIRPEE09-33.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Edmonds, Eric V., 2008. "Child Labor," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier.
    2. Heady, Christopher, 2003. "The Effect of Child Labor on Learning Achievement," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 385-398, February.
    3. François Bourguignon & Maurizio Bussolo & Luiz A. Pereira da Silva, 2008. "The Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on Poverty and Income Distribution : Macro-Micro Evaluation Techniques and Tools," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6586, June.
    4. Kruger, Diana I., 2007. "Coffee production effects on child labor and schooling in rural Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 448-463, March.
    5. Hazarika, Gautam & Sarangi, Sudipta, 2008. "Household Access to Microcredit and Child Work in Rural Malawi," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 843-859, May.
    6. Fontana, Marzia & Wood, Adrian, 2000. "Modeling the Effects of Trade on Women, at Work and at Home," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1173-1190, July.
    7. François Bourguignon & William H. Branson & Jaime de Melo, 1989. "Macroeconomic Adjustment and Income Distribution: A Macro-Micro Simulation Model," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 1, OECD Publishing.
    8. Shafiq, M. Najeeb, 2007. "Household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 946-966, December.
    9. Duryea, Suzanne & Arends-Kuenning, Mary, 2003. "School Attendance, Child Labor and Local Labor Market Fluctuations in Urban Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1165-1178, July.
    10. Elson, Diane, 1995. "Gender Awareness in Modeling Structural Adjustment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(11), pages 1851-1868, November.
    11. Duryea, Suzanne & Lam, David & Levison, Deborah, 2007. "Effects of economic shocks on children's employment and schooling in Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 188-214, September.
    12. Amin, Shahina & Quayes, Shakil & Rives, Janet M., 2006. "Market work and household work as deterrents to schooling in Bangladesh," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1271-1286, July.
    13. Elson, Diane, 1999. "Labor Markets as Gendered Institutions: Equality, Efficiency and Empowerment Issues," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 611-627, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Household work; market work; child schooling; gender; time-use; trade; CGE model; South Africa;

    JEL classification:

    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models
    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply

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