Non-Linearity in the Canadian and US Labour Market: Univariate and Multivariate Evidence from a battery of tests
The non-linearity of macroeconomic processes is becoming an increasingly important issue both at theoretical and empirical level. This trend holds for labour market variables as well. Reallocation theory of unemployment relies on non-linearities. At the same time there is mounting empirical evidence of business cycles asymmetries. Thus the assumption of linearity /non-linearity becomes crucial for the corroboration of labour market theories. This paper turns on the microscope on the assumption of linearity and investigates the presence of asymmetries on aggregate and disaggregate labour market variables. The assumption of linearity is tested using five statistical tests for the US and Canadian unemployment rates, growth rates of the employment sectoral shares of construction, finance, manufacturing and trade sectors. An AR(p) model was used to remove any linear structure from the series. Evidence of non-linearity is found for the sectoral shares with all five statistical tests in the US case but not in the aggregate level. The results for Canada are not clear-cut. Evidence of unspecified non-linearity is found in the unemployment rate and in the sectoral shares. Overall important asymmetries are found in disaggregated labour market variables in the univariate setting. The linearity hypothesis was also examined in a multivariate framework. Evidence is provided that important asymmetries exist and a linear VAR cannot capture the dynamics of employment reallocation.
|Date of creation:||Aug 2005|
|Date of revision:||Aug 2005|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU|
Phone: +44 (0) 1509 222701
Fax: +44 (0) 1509 223910
Web page: http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/sbe/research/economics/index.html
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Nickell, Stephen J, 1990. "Unemployment: A Survey," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(401), pages 391-439, June.
- Tim Bollerslev, 1986.
"Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity,"
EERI Research Paper Series
EERI RP 1986/01, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
- Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
- Campbell, J.R. & Kuttner, K.N., 1996.
"Macroeconomic Effects of Employment Reallocation,"
RCER Working Papers
415, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
- Campbell, Jeffrey R. & Kuttner, Kenneth N., 1996. "Macroeconomic effects of employment reallocation," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 87-116, June.
- Barnett, William A. & Gallant, A. Ronald & Hinich, Melvin J. & Jungeilges, Jochen A. & Kaplan, Daniel T. & Jensen, Mark J., 1997.
"A single-blind controlled competition among tests for nonlinearity and chaos,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 157-192.
- William Barnett & A. Ronald Gallant & Melvin J. Hinich & Jochen A. Jungeilges & Daniel T. Kaplan & Mark J. Jensen, 2012. "A Single-Blind Controlled Competition Among Tests For Nonlinearity And Chaos," WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS 201219, University of Kansas, Department of Economics, revised Sep 2012.
- William A. Barnett & A. Ronald Gallant & Melvin J. Hinich & Jochen A. Jungeilges & Daniel T. Kaplan & Mark J. Jensen, 1996. "A Single-Blind Controlled Competition among Tests for Nonlinearity and Chaos," Econometrics 9602005, EconWPA, revised 20 Sep 1996.
- Brock, W.A. & Dechert, W.D. & LeBaron, B. & Scheinkman, J.A., 1995. "A Test for Independence Based on the Correlation Dimension," Working papers 9520, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Panagiotidis, Theodore & Pelloni, Gianluigi, 2003. "Testing for non-linearity in labour markets: the case of Germany and the UK," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 275-286, April.
- Frank, Murray Z. & Stengos, Thanasis, 1988. "Some evidence concerning macroeconomic chaos," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 423-438.
- Steven J. Davis & John Haltiwanger, 1996.
"On the Driving Forces Behind Cyclical Movement, in Employment and Job Reallocation,"
NBER Working Papers
5775, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- John Haltiwanger & Steven J. Davis, 1999. "On the Driving Forces behind Cyclical Movements in Employment and Job Reallocation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(5), pages 1234-1258, December.
- Theodore Panagiotidisa & Gianluigi Pellonib & Wolfgang Polasekc, 2003.
"Macroeconomic Effects of Reallocation Shocks:A generalised impulse response function analysis for three European countries,"
Economics and Finance Discussion Papers
03-06, Economics and Finance Section, School of Social Sciences, Brunel University.
- Pelloni, Gianluigi & Panagiotidis, Theodore, 2003. "Macroeconomic Effects of Reallocation Shock: A Generalished Impulse Response Function Analysis for Three European Countries," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 18, pages 794-816.
- Theodore Panagiotidis & Gianluigi Pelloni, 2003. "Macroeconomic Effects of Reallocation Shocks: A generalised impulse response function analysis for three European countries," Discussion Paper Series 2003_15, Department of Economics, Loughborough University, revised Dec 2003.
- T. Panagiotidis & G. Pelloni & W. Polasek, 2003. "Macroeconomic Effects of Reallocation Shocks: A Generalised Impulse Reponse Function Analysis for Three European Countries," Working Papers 505, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
- Theodore Panagiotidisa & Gianluigi Pellonib & Wolfgang Polasekc, 2003. "Macroeconomic Effects of Reallocation Shocks:A generalised impulse response function analysis for three European countries," Public Policy Discussion Papers 03-06, Economics and Finance Section, School of Social Sciences, Brunel University.
- MacKinnon, James G, 1996.
"Numerical Distribution Functions for Unit Root and Cointegration Tests,"
Journal of Applied Econometrics,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(6), pages 601-18, Nov.-Dec..
- James G. MacKinnon, 1995. "Numerical Distribution Functions for Unit Root and Cointegration Tests," Working Papers 918, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Simon M. Potter, 1999.
"Nonlinear time series modelling: an introduction,"
87, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Barnett, William A. & Serletis, Apostolos, 2000.
"Martingales, nonlinearity, and chaos,"
Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control,
Elsevier, vol. 24(5-7), pages 703-724, June.
- William A. Barnett & Apostolos Serletis, 1998. "Martingales, Nonlinearity, and Chaos," Econometrics 9805003, EconWPA.
- William Barnett & Apostolos Serletis, 2012. "Martingales, Nonlinearity, And Chaos," WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS 201225, University of Kansas, Department of Economics, revised Sep 2012.
- Engle, Robert F, 1982. "Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 987-1007, July.
- Hinich , Melvin J. & Rothman, Philip, 1998.
"Frequency-Domain Test Of Time Reversibility,"
Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(01), pages 72-88, March.
- Breitung, Jorg, 2002. "Nonparametric tests for unit roots and cointegration," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 343-363, June.
- Koop, Gary & Potter, Simon M, 1999.
"Dynamic Asymmetries in U.S. Unemployment,"
Journal of Business & Economic Statistics,
American Statistical Association, vol. 17(3), pages 298-312, July.
- Gianluigi Pelloni & Wolfgang Polasek, 2000. "Macroeconomic Effects Of Sectoral Shocks In Us, Uk And Germany: A Bvar-Garch-M Approach," Computing in Economics and Finance 2000 253, Society for Computational Economics.
- Olivier J. Blanchard & Lawrence H. Summers, 1986.
"Hysteresis and the European Unemployment Problem,"
427, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Frank, Murray & Sayers, Chera & Stengos, Thanasis, 1993. "Evidence concerning non-linear structure in Canadian provincial unemployment rates," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 333-343, December.
- repec:cup:macdyn:v:2:y:1998:i:1:p:72-88 is not listed on IDEAS
- Michael P. Clements & Hans-Martin Krolzig, 1998. "A comparison of the forecast performance of Markov-switching and threshold autoregressive models of US GNP," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 1(Conferenc), pages C47-C75.
- Brock, William A. & Sayers, Chera L., 1988. "Is the business cycle characterized by deterministic chaos?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 71-90, July.
- van Dijk, Dick & Franses, Philip Hans & Paap, Richard, 2002. "A nonlinear long memory model, with an application to US unemployment," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 110(2), pages 135-165, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lbo:lbowps:2005_8. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Huw Edwards)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.