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Rural to Urban Migration: A District Level Analysis for India

Author

Listed:
  • Mitra, Arup
  • Murayama, Mayumi

Abstract

Based on the recent census data this paper analyses the district level rural to urbanmigration rates (both intra-state and the inter-state) among males and femalesseparately. Both the rates are closely associated irrespective of whether the migrants originate from the rural areas within the state or outside the state. This would suggest that women usually migrate as accompanists of the males. Though many ofthe relatively poor and backward states actually show large population mobility,which is primarily in search of a livelihood, the mobility of male population is also seen to be prominent in the relatively advanced states like Maharashtra and Gujarat. Rapid migration of rural females within the boundaries of the states is, however, evident across most of the regions. The social networks, which play an important role in the context of migration are prevalent among the short distance migrants and tend to lose their significance with a rise in the distance between the place of origin and destination though there are some exceptions to this phenomenon. Besides the north-south divide in theIndian context is indeed a significant phenomenon with a few exceptions ofmetropolitan cities. As regards the effect of factors at the place of destination, prospects for better job opportunities are a major determinant of male migration. Low castes and minority groups tend to pull migration through network effects. Among females also these effects are evidentthough with the inclusion of the male migration rate they become lesssignificant. Finally the paper brings out the policy implications.

Suggested Citation

  • Mitra, Arup & Murayama, Mayumi, 2008. "Rural to Urban Migration: A District Level Analysis for India," IDE Discussion Papers 137, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
  • Handle: RePEc:jet:dpaper:dpaper137
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Prabir C. Bhattacharya, 2002. "Rural-to-urban migration in LDCS: a test of two rival models," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(7), pages 951-972.
    2. Stark, Oded, 1984. "Rural-to-Urban Migration in LDCs: A Relative Deprivation Approach," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 32(3), pages 475-486, April.
    3. Ravallion, Martin & Datt, Gaurav, 2002. "Why has economic growth been more pro-poor in some states of India than others?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 381-400, August.
    4. Lall, Somik V. & Selod, Harris & Shalizi, Zmarak, 2006. "Rural-urban migration in developing countries : a survey of theoretical predictions and empirical findings," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3915, The World Bank.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Vijay Korra, 2011. "Short Duration Migration in India: An Appraisal from Census 2001," Working Papers id:3932, eSocialSciences.
    2. Brinda Viswanathan & K. S. Kavi Kumar, 2013. "Rural Migration, Weather and Agriculture: Evidence from Indian Census Data," Working Papers 2013-080, Madras School of Economics,Chennai,India.
    3. Valerie Mueller & Abusaleh Shariff, 2011. "Preliminary Evidence On Internal Migration, Remittances, And Teen Schooling In India," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 29(2), pages 207-217, April.
    4. Ram Fishman & Meha Jain & Avinash Kishore, 2013. "Patterns of Migration, Water Scarcity and Caste in Rural Northern Gujarat," Working Papers id:5400, eSocialSciences.
    5. Kanika Mahajan & Bharat Ramaswami, 2017. "Caste, Female Labor Supply, and the Gender Wage Gap in India: Boserup Revisited," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 65(2), pages 339-378.
    6. Rubiana Chamarbagwala, 2010. "Economic liberalization and urban–rural inequality in India: a quantile regression analysis," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 371-394, October.
    7. Ingrid Dallmann & Katrin Millock, 2013. "Climate Variability and Internal Migration: A Test on Indian Inter-State Migration," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 13045r, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne, revised Mar 2016.
    8. Mahreen Mahmud & Tareena Musaddiq & Farah Said, 2010. "Internal Migration Patterns in Pakistan—The Case for Fiscal Decentralisation," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 49(4), pages 593-607.
    9. Saikia, Dilip, 2008. "Economic Conditions of the In-Migrant Workers in Kerala: A Case Study in the Trivandrum District," MPRA Paper 28579, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Jan 2010.
    10. Tripathi, Sabyasachi & Kaur, Hardeep, 2017. "Determinants of Rural to Urban Migration in Large Agglomerations in India: An Empirical Analysis," MPRA Paper 76484, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Mahey, Kavita & Tripathi, Sabyasachi, 2016. "Urbanization and Economic Growth in Punjab (India): An Empirical Analysis," MPRA Paper 71325, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Kausik Chaudhuri & Susmita Roy, 2009. "Gender gap in educational attainment: evidence from rural India," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(2), pages 215-238.
    13. Ingrid Dallmann & Katrin Millock, 2016. "Climate Variability and Internal Migration: A Test on Indian Inter-State Migration," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00825807, HAL.
    14. repec:mse:cesdoc:13045 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Parida, Jajati Keshari & Mohanty, Sanjay K., 2013. "Role of Remittances on Households’ Expenditure Pattern in India," MPRA Paper 62395, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Rural-to-urban migration; Poverty; India; 2001 census; Gender; Population movement; 農村-都市移動; 移住; 貧困; インド; 2001センサス; ジェンダー; 人口移動;

    JEL classification:

    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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