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Gender and Racial Discrimination in Pay and Promotion for NHS Nurses

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  • Pudney, Stephen

    () (ISER, University of Essex)

  • Shields, Michael A.

    () (Monash University)

Abstract

For many years the NHS has been subject to allegations that gender and racial discrimination are a feature of the internal labour market for qualified nurses. This paper examines this issue with regard to the promotion process using 1994 survey data. We start by rejecting the assumption of covariate exogeneity inherent in the ordered probit model. A full simultaneous model is then developed which has important consequences for estimates of the influence of gender, ethnicity, training and career interruptions. We find evidence of significant differences in speed of promotion between gender and ethnic groups, which imply large differences in career earnings.

Suggested Citation

  • Pudney, Stephen & Shields, Michael A., 1999. "Gender and Racial Discrimination in Pay and Promotion for NHS Nurses," IZA Discussion Papers 85, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp85
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Stephen Pudney & Michael Shields, 2000. "Gender, race, pay and promotion in the British nursing profession: estimation of a generalized ordered probit model," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(4), pages 367-399.
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    8. Shields, Michael A & Price, Stephen Wheatley, 1999. "Ethnic Differences in the Incidence and Determinants of Employer-Funded Training in Britain," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 46(5), pages 523-551, November.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. McNabb, Robert & Wass, Victoria, 2006. "Male-female earnings differentials among lawyers in Britain: a legacy of the law or a current practice?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 219-235, April.
    2. Nathalie Havet, 2006. "La valorisation salariale et professionnelle de la formation en entreprise diffère-t-elle selon le sexe ? L'exemple canadien," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 175(4), pages 147-161.
    3. Paul Frijters, 2003. "Testing for Employee Discrimination using Matched Employer-Employee Data: Theory and Evidence," Paul Frijters Discussion Papers 2003-1, School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology.
    4. Paul Frijters & Michael A. Shields & Stephen Wheatley Price, 2007. "Investigating the quitting decision of nurses: panel data evidence from the british national health service," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 57-73.
    5. Fertig, Michael & Schmidt, Christoph M., 2000. "Discretionary Measures of Active Labor Market Policy: The German Employment Promotion Reform in Perspective," IZA Discussion Papers 182, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Pedro Rosa Dias, 2010. "Modelling opportunity in health under partial observability of circumstances," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(3), pages 252-264.
    7. Prosper F. Bangwayo-Skeete & Precious Zikhali, 2011. "Social exclusion and labour market outcomes: evidence from Eastern Europe and Central Asia," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 10(3), pages 233-250, September.
    8. Empar Pons Blasco & Luisa Escriche Bertolín, 2009. "Who moves up the career ladder? A model of gender differences in job promotion," Working Papers. Serie AD 2009-23, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    9. T. Kankaanranta & P. Rissanen, 2008. "Nurses’ intentions to leave nursing in Finland," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 9(4), pages 333-342, November.
    10. Merlino, Luca Paolo, 2012. "Discrimination, technology and unemployment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 557-567.
    11. Paul Frijters & Michael A. Shields & Stephen Wheatley Price & Nikolaos Theodoropoulos, 2006. "Testing for Employee Discrimination in Britain using Matched Employer-Employee Data," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 8-2006, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
    12. Shields, Michael A. & Ward, Melanie, 2001. "Improving nurse retention in the National Health Service in England: the impact of job satisfaction on intentions to quit," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 677-701, September.
    13. Haile, Getinet Astatike, 2009. "Unhappy Working with Men? Workplace Gender Diversity and Employee Job-Related Well-Being in Britain: A WERS2004 Based Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 4077, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    ordered probit models; Nursing; ethnicity; endogeneity; gender; promotions;

    JEL classification:

    • C5 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling
    • I1 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health
    • J3 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
    • J7 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination

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