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Intergenerational Earnings Mobility in Japan among Sons and Daughters: Levels and Trends

  • Lefranc, Arnaud

    ()

    (University of Cergy-Pontoise)

  • Ojima, Fumiaki

    ()

    (Doshisha University)

  • Yoshida, Takashi

    ()

    (Shizuoka University)

This paper estimates the extent of intergenerational income mobility in Japan among sons and daughters born between 1935 and 1975. Our estimates rely on a two-sample instrumental variables approach using representative data from the Japanese Social Stratification and Mobility (SSM) surveys, collected between 1965 and 2005. Father's income is predicted on the basis of a rich set of variables including education, occupation and job characteristics and we discuss changes in the Japanese earnings structure for cohorts born between the early 1900s and the 1960s. Our main results indicate that the intergenerational income elasticity (IGE) for both sons and daughters, in Japan lies around .35, which is an intermediate value, by international standards. We discuss the sensitivity of the IGE to using either personal or family income as the income variable for both fathers and children and perform some robustness analysis with respect to the first-step specification and to the age selection rule for children. We also examine changes across cohorts in the IGE. Results indicate that intergenerational mobility has been roughly stable over the last decades. Lastly, we estimate the intergenerational correlation of earnings.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 7045.

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Length: 51 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7045
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  1. Lefranc, A. & Pistolesi, Nicolas & Trannoy, Alain, 2005. "Inequality of opportunities vs inequality of outcomes: are western societies all alike?," ISER Working Paper Series 2005-15, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
  2. Laura Chadwick & Gary Solon, 2002. "Intergenerational Income Mobility Among Daughters," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 335-344, March.
  3. Ryo Kambayashi & Daiji Kawaguchi & Izumi Yokoyama, 2006. "Wage Distribution in Japan: 1989-2003," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d06-183, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  4. Arnaud Lefranc, 2011. "Educational expansion, earnings compression and changes in intergenerational economic mobility : Evidence from French cohorts, 1931-1976," THEMA Working Papers 2011-11, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
  5. Angrist, Joshua D & Krueger, Alan B, 1995. "Split-Sample Instrumental Variables Estimates of the Return to Schooling," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 13(2), pages 225-35, April.
  6. Arnaud LEFRANC, Alain TRANNOY - & Alain TRANNOY, 2005. "Intergenerational earnings mobility in France: Is France more mobile than the U.S.?," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 78, pages 57-77.
  7. Joseph G. Altonji & Nicolas Williams, 1997. "Do Wages Rise with Job Seniority? A Reassessment," NBER Working Papers 6010, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Nicoletti Cheti & Ermisch John F, 2008. "Intergenerational Earnings Mobility: Changes across Cohorts in Britain," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 7(2), pages 1-38, January.
  9. Haoming Liu & Jinli Zeng, 2009. "Genetic ability and intergenerational earnings mobility," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 75-95, January.
  10. Steven Haider & Gary Solon, 2006. "Life-Cycle Variation in the Association between Current and Lifetime Earnings," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(4), pages 1308-1320, September.
  11. Bhashkar Mazumder, 2001. "Earnings mobility in the US: a new look at intergenerational inequality," Working Paper Series WP-01-18, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  12. Arellano, Manuel & Meghir, Costas, 1992. "Female Labour Supply and On-the-Job Search: An Empirical Model Estimated Using Complementary Data Sets," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(3), pages 537-59, July.
  13. Zimmerman, David J, 1992. "Regression toward Mediocrity in Economic Stature," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 409-29, June.
  14. Solon, Gary, 1992. "Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 393-408, June.
  15. Samuel Bowles & Herbert Gintis, 2002. "The Inheritance of Inequality," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(3), pages 3-30, Summer.
  16. John Ermisch & Marco Francesconi & Thomas Siedler, 2006. "Intergenerational Mobility and Marital Sorting," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 116(513), pages 659-679, 07.
  17. Chul-In Lee & Gary Solon, 2006. "Trends in Intergenerational Income Mobility," NBER Working Papers 12007, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Markus Jäntti & Eva Österbacka & Oddbjörn Raaum & Tor Eriksson & Anders Björklund, 2002. "Brother correlations in earnings in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden compared to the United States," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 757-772.
  19. Silke Anger & Guido Heineck, 2010. "Do smart parents raise smart children? The intergenerational transmission of cognitive abilities," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 1105-1132, June.
  20. Daniel Aaronson & Bhashkar Mazumder, 2008. "Intergenerational Economic Mobility in the United States, 1940 to 2000," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(1).
  21. Grawe, Nathan D., 2006. "Lifecycle bias in estimates of intergenerational earnings persistence," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 551-570, October.
  22. Oi, Walter Y, 1990. "Employment Relations in Dual Labor Markets (" It's Nice Work If You Can Get It")," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages S124-49, January.
  23. Robert Lucas & Sari Kerr, 2013. "Intergenerational income immobility in Finland: contrasting roles for parental earnings and family income," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 1057-1094, July.
  24. Arnaud LEFRANC & Fumiaki OJIMA & Takashi YOSHIDA, 2008. "The Intergenerational Transmission of Income and Education: A Comparison of Japan and France," RSCAS Working Papers 2008/25, European University Institute.
  25. Katz, Lawrence F. & Revenga, Ana L., 1989. "Changes in the structure of wages: The United States vs Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 522-553, December.
  26. Bjorklund, Anders & Jantti, Markus, 1997. "Intergenerational Income Mobility in Sweden Compared to the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(5), pages 1009-18, December.
  27. Genda, Yuji & Kambayashi, Ryo, 2002. "Declining Self-Employment in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 73-91, March.
  28. Nybom, Martin & Stuhler, Jan, 2011. "Heterogeneous Income Profiles and Life-Cycle Bias in Intergenerational Mobility Estimation," IZA Discussion Papers 5697, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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