Remittances and Children's Capabilities: New Evidence from Kyrgyzstan, 2005-2008
The Kyrgyz Republic is one of the largest recipients of international remittances in the world; from a Balance of Payments measure of remittances, it ranked tenth in the world in 2008 in the ratio of remittances to GDP, a rapid increase from 30th place in 2004. Remittances can be used to maintain the household's standard of living by providing income to families with unemployed and underemployed adult members. Remittances can also be used to promote investment not only in businesses and communities but also in people. In this paper, we examine the role that remittances have played in the Kyrgyz Republic in promoting investments in children. Based on the capabilities approach to well-being initiated by Sen (2010), we look at the impact of remittances and domestic transfer payments primarily from internal migration on children's education and health. Our outcomes include enrollment in school and preschool, expenditures, stunting and wasting of preschool children, and health habits of older children. We use unique panel data from the Kyrgyz Republic for 2005-2008 and thus control for some of the biases inherent in cross-sectional studies of remittances and family outcomes. We find that overall remittances and domestic transfers have not promoted investments in the human capital of children. Specifically, preschool enrollments were higher in the urban north but secondary school enrollments were lower in other regions in remittance receiving households; expenditures were also negatively affected in the south and the mountain areas. These negative enrollment results were larger for girls than for boys. We also found evidence of stunting and wasting among young children and worse health habits among boys in remittance or transfer receiving households. In the long run, Kyrgyzstan needs human capital development for growth; our results suggest that remittances are not providing the boost needed in human capital to promote development in the future.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Booth, Alison L & Tamura, Yuji, 2009.
"Impact of Paternal Temporary Absence on Children Left Behind,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
7440, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Alison Booth & Yuji Tamura, 2009. "Impact of Paternal Temporary Absence on Children Left Behind," CEPR Discussion Papers 617, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
- Booth, Alison L. & Tamura, Yuji, 2009. "Impact of Paternal Temporary Absence on Children Left Behind," IZA Discussion Papers 4381, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Mansuri, Ghazala, 2006. "Migration, school attainment, and child labor : evidence from rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3945, The World Bank.
- Mu, Ren & van de Walle, Dominique, 2011.
"Left behind to farm? Women's labor re-allocation in rural China,"
Elsevier, vol. 18(S1), pages S83-S97.
- Mu, Ren & van de Walle, Dominique, 2009. "Left behind to farm ? women's labor re-allocation in rural China," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5107, The World Bank.
- Konseiga, Adama & Zulu, Eliya Msiyaphazi & Yé, Yazoumé, 2006. "Assessing the Effect of Mother’s Migration on Childhood Mortality in the Informal Settlements of Nairobi," IZA Discussion Papers 2295, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Joyce J. Chen, 2006. "Migration and Imperfect Monitoring: Implications for Intra-Household Allocation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 227-231, May.
- Konseiga, Adama, 2008.
"Family Migration: A Vehicle of Child Morbidity in the Informal Settlements of Nairobi City, Kenya?,"
IZA Discussion Papers
3567, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Adama Konseiga, 2008. "Family migration: a vehicle of child morbidity in the informal settlements of Nairobi city, Kenya?," Cahiers de recherche 08-07, Departement d'Economique de la Faculte d'administration à l'Universite de Sherbrooke.
- Dean Yang, 2006.
"International Migration, Remittances, and Household Investment: Evidence from Philippine Migrants' Exchange Rate Shocks,"
NBER Working Papers
12325, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dean Yang, 2008. "International Migration, Remittances and Household Investment: Evidence from Philippine Migrants' Exchange Rate Shocks," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(528), pages 591-630, 04.
- Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina & Georges, Annie & Pozo, Susan, 2008. "Migration, Remittances and Children’s Schooling in Haiti," IZA Discussion Papers 3657, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6293. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.