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Is the Glass Ceiling Cracking? A Simple Test

Author

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  • Hu, Ting

    () (Tulane University)

  • Yun, Myeong-Su

    () (Inha University)

Abstract

It has been reported that there is dramatic increase of female workers into manager level jobs during last few decades in the US labor market. Using Standard & Poor’s Compustat ExecuComp database over 14 years (1992 - 2005), this paper examines whether the glass ceiling in the executive market has been substantially weakened measured by relative compensation by gender and female representation in the top rung of the executive market. Though the status of females in the executive market seems to have been improved, we cannot reject null hypothesis of no change when we test hypotheses whether the glass ceiling has significantly weakened. The results of the hypothesis tests suggest that there is still a long way ahead before gender equality is achieved and the glass ceiling is removed in the executive market.

Suggested Citation

  • Hu, Ting & Yun, Myeong-Su, 2008. "Is the Glass Ceiling Cracking? A Simple Test," IZA Discussion Papers 3518, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp3518
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 75-99, Fall.
    2. Bell, Linda A., 2005. "Women-Led Firms and the Gender Gap in Top Executive Jobs," IZA Discussion Papers 1689, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001. "The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 55(1), pages 3-21, October.
    4. Justin Wolfers, 2006. "Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and CEO Gender," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 4(2-3), pages 531-541, 04-05.
    5. Malkiel, Burton G & Malkiel, Judith A, 1973. "Male-Female Pay Differentials in Professional Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(4), pages 693-705, September.
    6. Joanne Healy Burress & Linda J. Zucca, 2004. "The Gender Equity Gap in Top Corporate Executive Positions," American Journal of Business, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 19(1), pages 55-62.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender gap; executive compensation; glass ceiling; top rank; hypothesis test;

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J70 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - General

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