Is the Glass Ceiling Cracking? A Simple Test
It has been reported that there is dramatic increase of female workers into manager level jobs during last few decades in the US labor market. Using Standard & Poor’s Compustat ExecuComp database over 14 years (1992 - 2005), this paper examines whether the glass ceiling in the executive market has been substantially weakened measured by relative compensation by gender and female representation in the top rung of the executive market. Though the status of females in the executive market seems to have been improved, we cannot reject null hypothesis of no change when we test hypotheses whether the glass ceiling has significantly weakened. The results of the hypothesis tests suggest that there is still a long way ahead before gender equality is achieved and the glass ceiling is removed in the executive market.
|Date of creation:||May 2008|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Malkiel, Burton G & Malkiel, Judith A, 1973. "Male-Female Pay Differentials in Professional Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(4), pages 693-705, September.
- Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000.
"Gender Differences in Pay,"
NBER Working Papers
7732, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001. "The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 55(1), pages 3-21, October.
- Justin Wolfers, 2006.
"Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and CEO Gender,"
NBER Working Papers
11989, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Justin Wolfers, 2006. "Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and CEO Gender," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 4(2-3), pages 531-541, 04-05.
- Wolfers, Justin, 2006. "Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and CEO Gender," CEPR Discussion Papers 5507, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Wolfers, Justin, 2006. "Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and CEO Gender," IZA Discussion Papers 1944, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2000. "The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs," NBER Working Papers 7931, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- repec:eme:ajbpps:v:19:y:2004:i:1:p:55-62 is not listed on IDEAS
- Bell, Linda A., 5/07. "Women-Led Firms and the Gender Gap in Top Executive Jobs," IZA Discussion Papers 1689, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp3518. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.