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Remote Work and the Heterogeneous Impact of COVID-19 on Employment and Health

Author

Listed:
  • Angelucci, Manuela

    (University of Texas at Austin)

  • Angrisani, Marco

    (University of Southern California)

  • Bennett, Daniel

    (University of Southern California)

  • Kapteyn, Arie

    (University of Southern California)

  • Schaner, Simone G.

    (Dartmouth College)

Abstract

This paper examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on employment and respiratory health for remote workers (i.e. those who can work from home) and non-remote workers in the United States. Using a large, nationally-representative, high-frequency panel dataset from March through July of 2020, we show that job losses were up to three times as large for non-remote workers. This gap is larger than the differential job losses for women, African Americans, Hispanics, or workers without college degrees. Non-remote workers also experienced relatively worse respiratory health, which likely occurred because it was more difficult for non-remote workers to protect themselves. Grouping workers by pre-pandemic household income shows that job losses and, to a lesser extent, health losses were highest among non-remote workers from low-income households, exacerbating existing disparities. Finally, we show that lifting non-essential business closures did not substantially increase employment.

Suggested Citation

  • Angelucci, Manuela & Angrisani, Marco & Bennett, Daniel & Kapteyn, Arie & Schaner, Simone G., 2020. "Remote Work and the Heterogeneous Impact of COVID-19 on Employment and Health," IZA Discussion Papers 13620, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp13620
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Coibion, Olivier & Gorodnichenko, Yuriy & Weber, Michael, 2020. "Labor Markets During the Covid-19 Crisis: A Preliminary View," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt7rx7t91p, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    2. Sebastian Calonico & Matias D. Cattaneo & Rocio Titiunik, 2014. "Robust Nonparametric Confidence Intervals for Regression‐Discontinuity Designs," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 82, pages 2295-2326, November.
    3. Nicholas Bloom & James Liang & John Roberts & Zhichun Jenny Ying, 2015. "Does Working from Home Work? Evidence from a Chinese Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 130(1), pages 165-218.
    4. Thomas Piketty & Emmanuel Saez & Gabriel Zucman, 2018. "Distributional National Accounts: Methods and Estimates for the United States," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 133(2), pages 553-609.
    5. Dingel, Jonathan I. & Neiman, Brent, 2020. "How many jobs can be done at home?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 189(C).
    6. Pedro Brinca & Joao B. Duarte & Miguel Faria-e-Castro, 2020. "Measuring Labor Supply and Demand Shocks during COVID-19," Working Papers 2020-011, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, revised Dec 2020.
    7. Laura Montenovo & Xuan Jiang & Felipe Lozano Rojas & Ian M. Schmutte & Kosali I. Simon & Bruce A. Weinberg & Coady Wing, 2020. "Determinants of Disparities in Covid-19 Job Losses," NBER Working Papers 27132, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Erick Gong, 2015. "HIV Testing and Risky Sexual Behaviour," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 125(582), pages 32-60, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Rachid Laajaj & Camilo De Los Rios & Ignacio Sarmiento-Barbieri & Danilo Aristizabal & Eduardo Behrentz & Raquel Berna & Giancarlo Buitrago & Zulma Cucunubá, 2021. "SARS-CoV-2 spread, detection, and dynamics in a megacity in Latin America," Documentos CEDE 019152, Universidad de los Andes - CEDE.
    2. Gianni De Fraja & Jesse Matheson & James Rockey, 2020. "Zoomshock: The geography and local labour market consequences of working from home," Discussion Papers 20-31, Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.
    3. L'aszl'o Czaller & GergH{o} T'oth & Bal'azs Lengyel, 2021. "Vaccine allocation to blue-collar workers," Papers 2104.04639, arXiv.org.
    4. Denisa Sologon & Cathal O’Donoghue & Iryna Kyzyma & Jinjing Li & Jules Linden & Raymond Wagener, 2020. "The COVID-19 Resilience of a Continental Welfare Regime - Nowcasting the Distributional Impact of the Crisis," LISER Working Paper Series 2020-14, LISER.
    5. Lei Ding & Julieth Saenz Molina, 2020. "“Forced Automation” by COVID-19? Early Trends from Current Population Survey Data," Community Affairs Discussion Paper 88713, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    COVID-19; employment; working from home;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor
    • J6 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers

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