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NDC Schemes and Heterogeneity in Longevity: Proposals for Redesign

Author

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  • Holzmann, Robert

    (University of New South Wales)

  • Alonso-García, Jennifer

    (ARC Centre of Excellence in Population Ageing Research (CEPAR))

  • Labit-Hardy, Heloise

    (ARC Centre of Excellence in Population Ageing Research (CEPAR))

  • Villegas, Andres M.

    (UNSW Sydney)

Abstract

Strong and rising empirical evidence across countries finds that longevity is highly heterogeneous in key socioeconomic characteristics, including income. A positive relationship between lifetime income and life expectancy at retirement amounts to a straight tax/subsidy mechanism when the average cohort life expectancy is applied for annuity calculation, as done under nonfinancial defined contribution (NDC) schemes. Such a regressive redistribution and the ensuing labor market distortion put into doubt main features of the NDC scheme and call for alternative benefit designs to compensate for the heterogeneity. This paper explores five key mechanisms of compensation: individualized annuities; individualized contribution rates/account allocations; a two-tier contribution structure with socialized and individual rate structure; and two supplementary approaches under the two-tier approach to deal with the income distribution tails, and the distortions above a ceiling and below a floor. Using unique data from England and Wales and the United States, the analysis indicates that both individualized annuities and a two-tier contribution scheme are feasible and effective and thus promising policy options. To this end, however, a de-pooling of gender will be required.

Suggested Citation

  • Holzmann, Robert & Alonso-García, Jennifer & Labit-Hardy, Heloise & Villegas, Andres M., 2017. "NDC Schemes and Heterogeneity in Longevity: Proposals for Redesign," IZA Discussion Papers 11193, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp11193
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ayuso, Mercedes & Bravo, Jorge M. & Holzmann, Robert, 2021. "Getting life expectancy estimates right for pension policy: period versus cohort approach," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(2), pages 212-231, April.
    2. Edward Whitehouse & Asghar Zaidi, 2008. "Socio-Economic Differences in Mortality: Implications for Pensions Policy," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 71, OECD Publishing.
    3. Vicki Freedman & Linda Martin, 1999. "The role of education in explaining and forecasting trends in functional limitations among older Americans," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 36(4), pages 461-473, November.
    4. Tammy Schirle, 2008. "Why Have the Labor Force Participation Rates of Older Men Increased since the Mid-1990s?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(4), pages 549-594, October.
    5. Karen N. Eggleston & Victor R. Fuchs, 2012. "The New Demographic Transition: Most Gains in Life Expectancy Now Realized Late in Life," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 26(3), pages 137-156, Summer.
    6. Madrigal, A. M. & Matthews, F. E. & Patel, D. D. & Gaches, A. T. & Baxter, S. D., 2011. "What Longevity Predictors Should Be Allowed for When Valuing Pension Scheme Liabilities?," British Actuarial Journal, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(1), pages 1-38, March.
    7. Holzmann,Robert & Robalino,David A. & Winkler,Hernan Jorge, 2019. "NDC Schemes and the Labor Market : Issues and Options," Social Protection Discussion Papers and Notes 136565, The World Bank.
    8. Baxter, Steven, 2011. "What Longevity Predictors Should be Allowed for When Valuing Pension Scheme Liabilities? †Abstract of the Discussion," British Actuarial Journal, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(1), pages 39-62, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Bravo, Jorge M. & Ayuso, Mercedes & Holzmann, Robert & Palmer, Edward, 2021. "Addressing the life expectancy gap in pension policy," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 200-221.
    2. Ayuso, Mercedes & Bravo, Jorge M. & Holzmann, Robert, 2021. "Getting life expectancy estimates right for pension policy: period versus cohort approach," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(2), pages 212-231, April.
    3. Sanchez-Romero, Miguel & Lee, Ronald D. & Prskawetz, Alexia, 2020. "Redistributive effects of different pension systems when longevity varies by socioeconomic status," The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, Elsevier, vol. 17(C).
    4. Milevsky, Moshe A., 2020. "Swimming with wealthy sharks: longevity, volatility and the value of risk pooling," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 19(2), pages 217-246, April.
    5. Alvarez, Jesús-Adrián & Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene & Kjærgaard, Søren, 2021. "Linking retirement age to life expectancy does not lessen the demographic implications of unequal lifespans," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 363-375.
    6. Holzmann, Robert & Ayuso, Mercedes & Alaminos, Estefanía & Bravo, Jorge Miguel, 2019. "Life Cycle Saving and Dissaving Revisited across Three-Tiered Income Groups: Starting Hypotheses, Refinement through Literature Review, and Ideas for Empirical Testing," IZA Discussion Papers 12655, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Milevsky, Moshe A., 2020. "Swimming with wealthy sharks: longevity, volatility and the value of risk pooling," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 19(2), pages 217-246, April.
    8. Wang, Suxin & Lu, Yi, 2019. "Optimal investment strategies and risk-sharing arrangements for a hybrid pension plan," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 46-62.
    9. Alonso-García, Jennifer & Devolder, Pierre, 2019. "Continuous time model for notional defined contribution pension schemes: Liquidity and solvency," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 57-76.
    10. Jesús-Adrián Álvarez & Malene Kallestrup-Lamb & Søren Kjærgaard, 2020. "Linking retirement age to life expectancy does not lessen the demographic implications of unequal lifespans," CREATES Research Papers 2020-17, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    tax/subsidy structure; proxied life expectancy; two-tier contribution structure; gender de-pooling;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D9 - Microeconomics - - Micro-Based Behavioral Economics
    • G22 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Insurance; Insurance Companies; Actuarial Studies
    • H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J14 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped; Non-Labor Market Discrimination
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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