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Politiques pro-biocarburants et climatique américaines : impact sur les choix énergétiques du Brésil et des Etats-Unis et bilan carbone

Author

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  • Chakravorty, Ujjayant
  • Hubert, Marie-Hélène
  • Moreaux, Michel

Abstract

Nous analysons l’impact de deux politiques américaines sur la production et les échanges d’éthanol (biocarburants de première génération) et d’éthanol ligno-cellulosique (biocarburant de seconde génération) aux Etats-Unis et au Brésil ainsi que sur les émissions directes et indirectes de carbone. La première politique est une politique dite «pro-biocarburants» qui impose un usage minimal de biocarburants. La deuxième est la politique climatique de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre. Notre étude montre que la première politique encourage la production massive d’éthanol ligno-cellulosique, la diminution des émissions directes de carbone étant marginale. La deuxième politique accroît le prix des carburants et en décourage la demande. Elle a un effet significatif sur le taux de déforestation au Brésil et augmente de ce fait les émissions indirectes de carbone. La subvention nécessaire à l’implémentation de la politique «pro-biocarburants» devrait être de l’ordre 1.1 US $ par gallon. Enfin, la taxe sur le carbone dans le secteur des transports aux Etats-Unis devrait être égale à 120 US $ par tonne équivalent carbone.

Suggested Citation

  • Chakravorty, Ujjayant & Hubert, Marie-Hélène & Moreaux, Michel, 2009. "Politiques pro-biocarburants et climatique américaines : impact sur les choix énergétiques du Brésil et des Etats-Unis et bilan carbone," IDEI Working Papers 568, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  • Handle: RePEc:ide:wpaper:21028
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Chakravorty, Ujjayant & Magné, Bertrand & Moreaux, Michel, 2008. "A dynamic model of food and clean energy," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 1181-1203, April.
    2. G. C. van Kooten & Henk Folmer, 2004. "Land and Forest Economics," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 3466.
    3. Lubowski, Ruben N. & Plantinga, Andrew J. & Stavins, Robert N., 2006. "Land-use change and carbon sinks: Econometric estimation of the carbon sequestration supply function," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 135-152, March.
    4. Khanna, Madhu, 2008. "Cellulosic Biofuels: Are They Economically Viable and Environmentally Sustainable?," Choices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 23(3).
    5. Searchinger, Timothy & Heimlich, Ralph & Houghton, R. A. & Dong, Fengxia & Elobeid, Amani & Fabiosa, Jacinto F. & Tokgoz, Simla & Hayes, Dermot J. & Yu, Hun-Hsiang, 2008. "Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change," Staff General Research Papers Archive 12881, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    6. Chakravorty, Ujjayant & Roumasset, James & Tse, Kinping, 1997. "Endogenous Substitution among Energy Resources and Global Warming," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(6), pages 1201-1234, December.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • Q24 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Land
    • Q41 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Demand and Supply; Prices
    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy

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