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Politiques pro-biocarburants et climatique américaines : impact sur les choix énergétiques du Brésil et des Etats-Unis et bilan carbone

  • Ujjayant Chakravorty
  • Marie-Hélène Hubert
  • Michel Moreaux

In this paper, a partial trade equilibrium model is developed to explore the impacts of US energy policies on the use and trade of first-generation biofuels (ethanol) and second-generation biofuels (ligno-cellulosic ethanol) in the United-States and Brazil. In addition, we investigate their impacts on direct and indirect carbon emissions. The first policy is the biofuels mandatory target. The second defines a cap on carbon emissions. Our study reveals that the biofuels mandatory target encourages ligno-cellulosic ethanol production, reductions in carbon emissions being marginal. The second policy increases energy prices leading to a decrease in energy consumption as well as in direct carbon emissions. However, this policy has a significant impact on deforestation in Brazil resulting in a rise in indirect carbon emissions. The biofuels subsidy needed to reach the mandatory target amounts to US $ 1.1 per gallon. The US carbon tax reaches US $ 120 per ton equivalent carbon. A differential tax is imposed on gasoline, ethanol and ligno-cellulosic ethanol based on the carbon content. It is respectively equal to US $ 0.38, US $ 0.204 and US $ 0.024.

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Article provided by Presses de Sciences-Po in its journal Revue économique.

Volume (Year): 61 (2010)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 213-247

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Handle: RePEc:cai:recosp:reco_611_0213
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  1. Ujjayant Chakravorty & Bertrand Magne & Michel Moreaux, 2008. "A dynamic model of food and clean energy," Working Papers 26086, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France.
  2. Lubowski, Ruben N. & Plantinga, Andrew J. & Stavins, Robert N., 2006. "Land-use change and carbon sinks: Econometric estimation of the carbon sequestration supply function," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 135-152, March.
  3. Chakravorty, Ujjayant & Roumasset, James & Tse, Kinping, 1997. "Endogenous Substitution among Energy Resources and Global Warming," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(6), pages 1201-34, December.
  4. Khanna, Madhu, 2008. "Cellulosic Biofuels: Are They Economically Viable and Environmentally Sustainable?," Choices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 23(3).
  5. Searchinger, Timothy & Heimlich, Ralph & Houghton, R. A. & Dong, Fengxia & Elobeid, Amani & Fabiosa, Jacinto F. & Tokgoz, Simla & Hayes, Dermot J. & Yu, Hun-Hsiang, 2008. "Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change," Staff General Research Papers 12881, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
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