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Managerial ownership dynamics and firm value

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  • Fahlenbrach, Rüdiger
  • Stulz, René M.

Abstract

From 1988 to 2003, the average change in managerial ownership is significantly negative every year for American firms. We find that managers are more likely to significantly decrease their ownership when their firms are performing well, but not more likely to increase their ownership when their firms have poor performance. Because investors learn about the total change in managerial ownership with a lag, changes in Tobin's q in a period can be affected by changes in managerial ownership in the previous period. In an efficient market, it is unlikely that changes in managerial ownership in one period are caused by future changes in q. When controlling for past stock returns, we find that large increases in managerial ownership increase q. This result is driven by increases in shares held by officers, while increases in shares held by directors appear unrelated to changes in firm value. There is no evidence that large decreases in ownership have an adverse impact on firm value. We argue that our evidence cannot be wholly explained by existing theories and propose a managerial discretion theory of ownership consistent with our evidence.

Suggested Citation

  • Fahlenbrach, Rüdiger & Stulz, René M., 2008. "Managerial ownership dynamics and firm value," CEI Working Paper Series 2008-1, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  • Handle: RePEc:hit:hitcei:2008-1
    Note: January 2008
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Ming Jia & Zhe Zhang, 2013. "Critical Mass of Women on BODs, Multiple Identities, and Corporate Philanthropic Disaster Response: Evidence from Privately Owned Chinese Firms," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 118(2), pages 303-317, December.
    2. repec:eee:reveco:v:49:y:2017:i:c:p:17-57 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Georgeta Vintila & Stefan Cristian Gherghina, 2014. "Insider Ownership and the Value of the Bucharest Stock Exchange Listed Companies: Convergence-of-Interest or Entrenchment Effect?," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 4(1), pages 183-195.
    4. Pascal Frantz & Norvald Instefjord, 2009. "Large shareholders and corporate governance," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 297-321, November.
    5. Martin, Thorsten & Sonnenburg, Florian, 2015. "Managerial ownership changes and mutual fund performance," CFR Working Papers 16-03, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    6. Achleitner, Ann-Kristin & Kaserer, Christoph & Kauf, Tobias, 2012. "The dynamics of voting ownership in lone-founder, family-founder, and heir firms," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 79-96.
    7. Yuk Ying Chang & Martin Young, 2015. "Dissipative Competition: Evidence from a Quasi-Natural Experiment," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 15(2), pages 169-198, June.
    8. Wei Li & Yaping Wang & Liansheng Wu & Jason Zezhong Xiao, 2017. "The Ethical Dimension of Management Ownership in China," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 141(2), pages 381-392, March.
    9. Edmans, Alex & Gabaix, Xavier & Sadzik, Tomasz & Sannikov, Yuliy, 2009. "Dynamic Incentive Accounts," CEPR Discussion Papers 7497, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. Dimopoulos, Theodosios & Sacchetto, Stefano, 2014. "Preemptive bidding, target resistance, and takeover premiums," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(3), pages 444-470.
    11. Jarque, Arantxa, 2014. "The Complexity of CEO Compensation," Working Paper 14-16, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
    12. Achleitner, Ann-Kristin & Kaserer, Christoph & Ampenberger, Markus & Bitsch, Florian, 2009. "The German entrepreneurial index (GEX®): a primer on an ownership-based style index in Germany," CEFS Working Paper Series 2009-13, Technische Universität München (TUM), Center for Entrepreneurial and Financial Studies (CEFS).
    13. Korczak, Piotr & Liu, Xicheng, 2014. "Managerial shareholding policies and retention of vested equity incentives," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 116-129.
    14. Kim, E. Han & Lu, Yao, 2011. "CEO ownership, external governance, and risk-taking," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(2), pages 272-292.
    15. Chen, Ming-Yuan, 2013. "Adjustments in managerial ownership and changes in firm value," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 1-12.
    16. Robert Hull & Sungkyu Kwak & Rosemary Walker, 2012. "Explanation for market response to seasoned equity offerings," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 36(3), pages 634-661, July.
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    18. repec:eee:corfin:v:45:y:2017:i:c:p:294-317 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Costas Lambrinoudakis & Michael Neumann & George Skiadopoulos, 2014. "Capital Structure and Financial Flexibility: Expectations of Future Shocks," Working Papers 731, Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
    20. Huang, Paoyu & Ni, Yensen, 2017. "Board structure and stock price informativeness in terms of moving average rules," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 161-169.
    21. McConnell, John J. & Servaes, Henri & Lins, Karl V., 2008. "Changes in insider ownership and changes in the market value of the firm," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 92-106, April.
    22. Liao, Rose C., 2014. "What drives corporate minority acquisitions around the world? The case for financial constraints," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 78-95.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Firm valuation; director and officer ownership; ownership dynamics;

    JEL classification:

    • G30 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - General
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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