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Dynamic Capital Structure under Managerial Entrenchment

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  • Zwiebel, Jeffrey

Abstract

This paper develops a model in which managers voluntarily choose debt to credibly constrain their own future empire-building. Dynamically consistent capital structure is derived as the optimal response in each period of partially entrenched managers trading off empire-building ambitions with the need to ensure sufficient efficiency to prevent control challenges. A policy of capital structure coordinated with dividends follows naturally, as do implications for the level, frequency, and maturity structure of debt as a function of outside investment opportunities. Additionally, the model yields new testable implications for security design, and changes in debt and empire-building over managerial careers. Copyright 1996 by American Economic Association.

Suggested Citation

  • Zwiebel, Jeffrey, 1996. "Dynamic Capital Structure under Managerial Entrenchment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1197-1215, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aecrev:v:86:y:1996:i:5:p:1197-1215
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Krugman, Paul & Venables, Anthony J., 1996. "Integration, specialization, and adjustment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 959-967, April.
    2. James Markusen & Thomas Rutherford, 1994. "Discrete plant-location decisions in an applied general-equilibrium model of trade liberalization," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), pages 133-151.
    3. Krugman, Paul, 1991. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 483-499, June.
    4. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    5. Paul Krugman & Anthony Venables, 1993. "Integration, Specialization, and the Adjustment," NBER Working Papers 4559, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Dwivedi, T. D. & Srivastava, V. K., 1978. "Optimality of least squares in the seemingly unrelated regression equation model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 391-395, April.
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