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CEO ownership, external governance, and risk-taking

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  • Kim, E. Han
  • Lu, Yao

Abstract

This paper shows the relation between CEO ownership and firm valuation hinges critically on the strength of external governance (EG). The relation is hump-shaped when EG is weak, but is insignificant when EG is strong. The results imply that CEO ownership and EG are substitutes for mitigating agency problems when ownership is low. However, very high levels of share ownership can reduce firm value by entrenching the CEO and discouraging him from taking risk, unless mitigated by strong EG. We identify channels through which CEO ownership affects firm value by examining R&D, which is discretionary and risky. We find CEO ownership similarly exhibits a hump-shaped relation with R&D when EG is weak, but no relation when EG is strong. Our results are robust to endogeneity issues concerning CEO ownership and EG.

Suggested Citation

  • Kim, E. Han & Lu, Yao, 2011. "CEO ownership, external governance, and risk-taking," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(2), pages 272-292.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:102:y:2011:i:2:p:272-292
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jfineco.2011.07.002
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    Cited by:

    1. Mishra, Dev R., 2014. "The dark side of CEO ability: CEO general managerial skills and cost of equity capital," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 390-409.
    2. repec:eee:corfin:v:45:y:2017:i:c:p:19-30 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Pham, Nga & Oh, K.B. & Pech, Richard, 2015. "Mergers and acquisitions: CEO duality, operating performance and stock returns in Vietnam," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 35(PA), pages 298-316.
    4. repec:eee:corfin:v:45:y:2017:i:c:p:428-466 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Colonnello, Stefano & Curatola, Giuliano & Hoang, Ngoc Giang, 2017. "Direct and indirect risk-taking incentives of inside debt," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 428-466.
    6. Li, Tongxia & Munir, Qaiser & Abd Karim, Mohd Rahimie, 2017. "Nonlinear relationship between CEO power and capital structure: Evidence from China's listed SMEs," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 1-21.
    7. Ordu, Umut & Schweizer, Denis, 2015. "Executive compensation and informed trading in acquiring firms around merger announcements," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 260-280.
    8. Waelchli, Urs & Zeller, Jonas, 2013. "Old captains at the helm: Chairman age and firm performance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1612-1628.
    9. Masanori Orihara, "undated". "Corporate tax asymmetries and R&D: Evidence from a tax reform for business groups in Japan," Discussion papers ron273, Policy Research Institute, Ministry of Finance Japan.
    10. Balachandran, Balasingham & Faff, Robert, 2015. "Corporate governance, firm value and risk: Past, present, and future," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 35(PA), pages 1-12.
    11. Jiraporn, Pornsit & Chatjuthamard, Pattanaporn & Tong, Shenghui & Kim, Young Sang, 2015. "Does corporate governance influence corporate risk-taking? Evidence from the Institutional Shareholders Services (ISS)," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 13(C), pages 105-112.
    12. Chen, Anlin & Kao, Lanfeng & Lu, Cheng-Shou, 2014. "Controlling ownership and firm performance in Taiwan: The role of external competition and internal governance," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 219-238.
    13. repec:eee:finsta:v:32:y:2017:i:c:p:99-114 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Korczak, Piotr & Liu, Xicheng, 2014. "Managerial shareholding policies and retention of vested equity incentives," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 116-129.
    15. Tanaka, Takanori, 2016. "How do managerial incentives affect the maturity structure of corporate public debt?," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 40(PA), pages 130-146.
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    18. Jie Chen & Woon Sau Leung & Wei Song & Marc Goergen, 2018. "Why female board representation matters: The role of female directors in reducing male CEO overconfidence in corporate decisions," Working Papers 2018-12, Swansea University, School of Management.
    19. repec:eee:corfin:v:47:y:2017:i:c:p:110-130 is not listed on IDEAS
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    21. Gormley, Todd A. & Matsa, David A., 2016. "Playing it safe? Managerial preferences, risk, and agency conflicts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(3), pages 431-455.
    22. Chen, Tao & Xie, Lingmin & Zhang, Yuanyuan, 2017. "How does analysts' forecast quality relate to corporate investment efficiency?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 217-240.
    23. Sila, Vathunyoo & Gonzalez, Angelica & Hagendorff, Jens, 2016. "Women on board: Does boardroom gender diversity affect firm risk?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 26-53.
    24. Wang, Li-Hsun & Lin, Chu-Hsiung & Fung, Hung-Gay & Chen, Hsien-Ming, 2015. "Governance mechanisms and downside risk," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 35(PB), pages 485-498.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Managerial share ownership; R&D; Product market competition; Institutional ownership concentration;

    JEL classification:

    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • D86 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Economics of Contract Law
    • L22 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Organization and Market Structure

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