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An Empirical Analysis Of Household Energy Choice In Ghana

  • Mensah, Justice T.


    (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)

  • Adu, George


    (Department of Economics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana)

This paper investigates household cooking energy choices and their determinants in Ghana using a nationwide household survey data. The underlying empirical model was estimated using the ordered probit model. The results show that biomass is by far the most predominant source of energy for Ghanaian households. Biomass energy is the main source of cooking fuel in Ghana used by 89.2% of households compared with 10.8% which use modern energy sources such as LPG, electricity and kerosene for cooking. The findings of the paper also lend support to the energy ladder hypothesis that household income is a major determinant of household energy choice. Further, social and demographic factors as well as access to energy supplies are key determinants cooking fuel type in Ghana. We thus recommend intensification of income poverty reduction programs to boost households’ incomes. The benefits of such a policy will be to move majority of households towards the upper rungs of the energy ladder. This then implies a move away from over dependence on biomass to clean and modern energy sources such as LPG and electricity. Important component of energy policy will involve measures to remove supply side constraints to ensure regular supply of LPG households.

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Paper provided by Department Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in its series Working Paper Series with number 2013:6.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: 01 Sep 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:slueko:2013_006
Contact details of provider: Postal: Department of Economics, Box 7013, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
Phone: 018-67 1724
Fax: 018-67 3502
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  1. Mekonnen, Alemu & Köhlin, Gunnar, 2009. "Determinants of Household Fuel Choice in Major Cities in Ethiopia," Working Papers in Economics 399, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  2. Campbell, B. M. & Vermeulen, S. J. & Mangono, J. J. & Mabugu, R., 2003. "The energy transition in action: urban domestic fuel choices in a changing Zimbabwe," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 553-562, May.
  3. Smith, Kirk R. & Apte, Michael G. & Yuqing, Ma & Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana & Kulkarni, Ashwini, 1994. "Air pollution and the energy ladder in asian cities," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 587-600.
  4. Heltberg, Rasmus, 2004. "Fuel switching: evidence from eight developing countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 869-887, September.
  5. Ouedraogo, Boukary, 2006. "Household energy preferences for cooking in urban Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(18), pages 3787-3795, December.
  6. Leach, Gerald, 1992. "The energy transition," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 116-123, February.
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