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Air pollution and the energy ladder in asian cities


  • Smith, Kirk R.
  • Apte, Michael G.
  • Yuqing, Ma
  • Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana
  • Kulkarni, Ashwini


Household fuel switching from lower to higher quality fuels, i.e. movement up the “energy ladder,” generally leads to substantially lower emissions of health-damaging pollutants. The extent to which human exposures are reduced is difficult to predict, however, because of interactions due to penetration of outdoor pollutants into homes and vice versa. In order to help answer the question of how much exposures might be reduced by movement up the energy ladder, a three-city household air pollution study covering particulates (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) was conducted in and near households spanning the most important current steps in each city's energy ladder. Steps examined were biomass-kerosene-gas in Pune, India; coal-gas in Beijing, China; and charcoal-gas in Bangkok, Thailand. In most instances, 24-hour sampling was conducted and some personal monitoring was undertaken during cooking periods. Preliminary calculations of the exposure and health implications of fuel switching are presented.

Suggested Citation

  • Smith, Kirk R. & Apte, Michael G. & Yuqing, Ma & Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana & Kulkarni, Ashwini, 1994. "Air pollution and the energy ladder in asian cities," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 587-600.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:19:y:1994:i:5:p:587-600
    DOI: 10.1016/0360-5442(94)90054-X

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    2. Pachauri, Shonali & Jiang, Leiwen, 2008. "The household energy transition in India and China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 4022-4035, November.
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    4. Mensah, Justice Tei & Adu, George, 2015. "An empirical analysis of household energy choice in Ghana," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 1402-1411.
    5. Jin Dang & Chaoliu Li & Jihua Li & Andy Dang & Qianggong Zhang & Pengfei Chen & Shichang Kang & Derek Dunn-Rankin, 2019. "Emissions from Solid Fuel Cook Stoves in the Himalayan Region," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(6), pages 1-15, March.
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    7. Ibidun O. Adelekan & Afeikhena T. Jerome, 2006. "Dynamics of household energy consumption in a traditional African city, Ibadan," Environment Systems and Decisions, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 99-110, June.
    8. Hojin Jung, 2020. "The Impact of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter on Consumer Expenditures," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(5), pages 1-13, March.
    9. Stéphane Couture & Serge Garcia & Arnaud Reynaud, 2009. "Household Energy Choices and Fuelwood Consumption: An Econometric Approach to the French Data," LERNA Working Papers 09.08.284, LERNA, University of Toulouse.
    10. Kounetas, Konstantinos & Stergiou, Eirini, 2019. "Technology heterogeneity in European industries' energy efficiency performance. The role of climate, greenhouse gases, path dependence and energy mix," MPRA Paper 92314, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Arabatzis, G. & Malesios, Ch., 2011. "An econometric analysis of residential consumption of fuelwood in a mountainous prefecture of Northern Greece," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 8088-8097.
    12. Parikh, Jyoti & Balakrishnan, Kalpana & Laxmi, Vijay & Biswas, Haimanti, 2001. "Exposure from cooking with biofuels: pollution monitoring and analysis for rural Tamil Nadu, India," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 26(10), pages 949-962.
    13. Wang, Shaobin & Liu, Yonglin & Zhao, Chao & Pu, Haixia, 2019. "Residential energy consumption and its linkages with life expectancy in mainland China: A geographically weighted regression approach and energy-ladder-based perspective," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 347-357.
    14. Zhang, Xiao-Bing & Hassen, Sied, 2017. "Household fuel choice in urban China: evidence from panel data," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(4), pages 392-413, August.
    15. Martey, Edward, 2019. "Tenancy and energy choice for lighting and cooking: Evidence from Ghana," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 570-581.
    16. Masera, Omar R. & Saatkamp, Barbara D. & Kammen, Daniel M., 2000. "From Linear Fuel Switching to Multiple Cooking Strategies: A Critique and Alternative to the Energy Ladder Model," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(12), pages 2083-2103, December.
    17. Jovanović, Marina & Vučićević, Biljana & Turanjanin, Valentina & Živković, Marija & Spasojević, Vuk, 2014. "Investigation of indoor and outdoor air quality of the classrooms at a school in Serbia," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 42-48.
    18. Gosens, Jorrit & Lu, Yonglong & He, Guizhen & Bluemling, Bettina & Beckers, Theo A.M., 2013. "Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 273-287.
    19. Edwards, Rufus D. & Smith, Kirk R. & Zhang, Junfeng & Ma, Yuqing, 2004. "Implications of changes in household stoves and fuel use in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 395-411, February.
    20. Kadian, Rashmi & Dahiya, R.P. & Garg, H.P., 2007. "Energy-related emissions and mitigation opportunities from the household sector in Delhi," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 6195-6211, December.
    21. van Ruijven, Bas & Urban, Frauke & Benders, René M.J. & Moll, Henri C. & van der Sluijs, Jeroen P. & de Vries, Bert & van Vuuren, Detlef P., 2008. "Modeling Energy and Development: An Evaluation of Models and Concepts," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 2801-2821, December.

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