Mandatory Earnings-Related Insurance Rights, Human Capital and the Gender Earnings Gap in Sweden
Most labour market analyses take money wages as the sole measure of compensation for labour, thus excluding fringe benefits. We examine an extended compensation measure by incorporating mandatory collective earnings-related insurance rights: the rights of individual old age pension, sickness benefit insurance and survivors’ pension. We estimate the return on investment in human capital and the gender earnings gap in a traditional earnings equation. The money wage and the extended wage are used as dependent variables in joint regressions, where a SUR framework enables proper joint cross-equation tests. The main finding is that the inclusion of earnings-related insurance rights does affect the return on education. When these non-wage benefits are included, the gender wage gap decreases by 21 per cent. However, the gender differences in returns to education are severely underestimated when money wage is used as a compensation measure.
|Date of creation:||07 Oct 2002|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Wallingatan 38, 4th floor S-111 24 Stockholm|
Web page: http://www.fief.se/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Asplund, Rita, . "Essays on Human Capital and Earnings in Finland," ETLA A, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy, number 18.
- Janet Currie, 1993. "Gender Gaps in Benefits Coverage," NBER Working Papers 4265, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- T. S. Breusch & A. R. Pagan, 1980.
"The Lagrange Multiplier Test and its Applications to Model Specification in Econometrics,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 239-253.
- Breusch, T.S. & Pagan, A.R., "undated". "The Lagrange multiplier test and its applications to model specification in econometrics," CORE Discussion Papers RP 412, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Even, William E & Macpherson, David A, 1990. "The Gender Gap in Pensions and Wages," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 259-265, May.
- Jantti, Markus, 1994. "A More Efficient Estimate of the Effects of Macroeconomic Activity on the Distribution of Income," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(2), pages 372-378, May.
- Averett, Susan L & Hotchkiss, Julie L, 1995. "The Probability of Receiving Benefits at Different Hours of Work," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 276-280, May.
- B. F. Kiker & Sherrie L. W. Rhine, 1987. "Fringe Benefits and the Earnings Equation: A Test of the Consistency Hypothesis," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 22(1), pages 126-137.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:fiefwp:0179. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sune Karlsson)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.