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Gender Gaps in Benefits Coverage

  • Janet Currie

This paper explores the extent to which there are gender gaps in the provision of 4 common non-wage benefits offered by employers: pensions, health insurance, sick leaves, and disability plans. I find that there are gender differences in whether or not benefits are offered, which remain statistically significant when observable characteristics such as age, education, marital status and number of children are controlled for. Women are less likely to be offered pensions, health coverage, and disability. However, they are 10% more likely to have paid sick leave. When the wage is controlled for, differences in offered pensions and health insurance disappear, which suggests that much of the difference in benefits coverage is associated with the fact that women work in low-wage jobs.

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File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w4265.pdf
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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 4265.

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Date of creation: Jan 1993
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Publication status: published as Chapter 23 in The Handbook of Human Resource Management, JAI Press, 1997. Eds. David Lewin, Daniel Mitchell, and Mahmood Zaidi.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4265
Note: LS
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  1. William E. Even & David A. Macpherson, 1994. "Gender Differences in Pensions," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(2), pages 555-587.
  2. M. Keane & R. Mofitt, 1995. "A Structural Model of Multiple Welfare Program Participation and Labor Supply," Working Papers 95-4, Brown University, Department of Economics.
  3. Stephen A. Woodbury & Wei-Jang Huang, 1991. "The Tax Treatment of Fringe Benefits," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number ttfb, June.
  4. Robert S. Smith & Ronald G. Ehrenberg, 1981. "Estimating Wage-Fringe Trade-Offs: Some Data Problems," NBER Working Papers 0827, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Edward P. Lazear & Sherwin Rosen, 1984. "Pension Inequality," NBER Working Papers 1477, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    • Edward P. Lazear & Sherwin Rosen, 1987. "Pension Inequality," NBER Chapters, in: Issues in Pension Economics, pages 341-364 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Smith, James P & Ward, Michael, 1989. "Women in the Labor Market and in the Family," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 9-23, Winter.
  7. Zvi Bodie & John B. Shoven & David A. Wise, 1987. "Issues in Pension Economics," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number bodi87-1, August.
  8. Rosen, Sherwin, 1987. "The theory of equalizing differences," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 12, pages 641-692 Elsevier.
  9. Robert A. Hart & David N.F. Bell & Rudolf Frees & Seiichi Kawaski & Stephen A. Woodbury, 1988. "Trends in Non-Wage Labour Costs and their Effects on Employment: Final Report," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number saw1988, June.
  10. Stephen A. Woodbury, 2009. "Unemployment," Book chapters authored by Upjohn Institute researchers, in: Kenneth G. Dau-Schmidt & Seth D. Harris & Orley Lobel (ed.), Labor and Employment Law and Economics, volume 2, pages 480-516 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
    • Stephen A. Woodbury, 2009. "Unemployment," Chapters, in: Labor and Employment Law and Economics, chapter 17 Edward Elgar.
  11. Even, William E & Macpherson, David A, 1990. "The Gender Gap in Pensions and Wages," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 259-65, May.
  12. Arleen Leibowitz, 1983. "Fringe Benefits in Employee Compensation," NBER Chapters, in: The Measurement of Labor Cost, pages 371-394 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Brown, Charles, 1980. "Equalizing Differences in the Labor Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 94(1), pages 113-34, February.
  14. James E. Pesando & Morley Gunderson & John McLaren, 1991. "Pension Benefits and Male-Female Wage Differentials," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 24(3), pages 536-50, August.
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