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The Gender Gap in Pensions and Wages


  • Even, William E
  • Macpherson, David A


This study provides rationale for the underrepresentation of women in the pension sector and examines the consequences for the gender wage gap. For a given set of observed characteristics, a woman is 11-19 percent less likely than a man to have a pension. Of the unexplained portion of the gender wage gap, 10-38 percent is due to unexplained differences in pension coverage. Finally, consistent with a screening effect of pensions, women are paid more equally in the pension sector. Copyright 1990 by MIT Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Even, William E & Macpherson, David A, 1990. "The Gender Gap in Pensions and Wages," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 259-265, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:tpr:restat:v:72:y:1990:i:2:p:259-65

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Viscusi, W Kip & Moore, Michael J, 1987. "Workers' Compensation: Wage Effects, Benefit Inadequacies, and the Value of Health Losses," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(2), pages 249-261, May.
    2. Thomas J. Kniesner & John D. Leeth, 1989. "Separating the Reporting Effects from the Injury Rate Effects of Workers' Compensation Insurance: A Hedonic Simulation," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 42(2), pages 280-293, January.
    3. Hausman, Jerry A & Taylor, William E, 1981. "Panel Data and Unobservable Individual Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1377-1398, November.
    4. Hamermesh, Daniel S & Wolfe, John R, 1990. "Compensating Wage Differentials and the Duration of Wage Loss," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages 175-197, January.
    5. Butler, Richard J & Worrall, John D, 1983. "Workers' Compensation: Benefit and Injury Claims Rates in the Seventies," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(4), pages 580-589, November.
    6. Breusch, T S & Pagan, A R, 1979. "A Simple Test for Heteroscedasticity and Random Coefficient Variation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1287-1294, September.
    7. Ronald G. Ehrenberg, 1985. "Workers' Compensation, Wages, and the Risk of Injury," NBER Working Papers 1538, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Breusch, Trevor S & Mizon, Grayham E & Schmidt, Peter, 1989. "Efficient Estimation Using Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(3), pages 695-700, May.
    9. H. Allan Hunt & Alan B. Krueger & John F. Burton Jr., 1988. "The Impact of Open competition in Michigan on the Employers' costs of Workers' Compensation," Book chapters authored by Upjohn Institute researchers,in: Workers' Compensation Insurance Pricing: Current Programs and Proposed Reform, pages 109-144 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
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    Cited by:

    1. Leora Friedberg & Michael T. Owyang, 2004. "Explaining the evolution of pension structure and job tenure," Working Papers 2002-022, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    2. Zou, Tieding & Ye, Hang, 2013. "公平与效率对养老改革的双重约束——延迟退休?还是并轨?
      [Fairness and Efficiency were the Double Constraints of Pension Reform——Delay Retirement ? or Incorporation ?]
      ," MPRA Paper 60895, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 05 Jan 2014.
    3. Malene Kallestrup-Lamb, 2011. "The Role of the Spouse in Early Retirement Decisions for Older Workers," CREATES Research Papers 2011-38, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    4. Ippolito, Richard A, 1996. "A Study of Wages and Reliability," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(1), pages 149-189, April.
    5. Yogo, Urbain Thierry & Mallaye, Douzounet, 2012. "Health Aid and Health Improvement in Sub Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 44938, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Morissette, Rene & Ostrovsky, Yuri, 2008. "How Do Families and Unattached Individuals Respond to Layoffs? Evidence from Canada," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2008304e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    7. Maria Letizia Zanier & Isabella Crespi, 2015. "Facing the Gender Gap in Aging: Italian Women’s Pension in the European Context," Social Sciences, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(4), pages 1-22, November.
    8. Montgomery, Edward & Shaw, Kathryn, 1997. "Pensions and Wage Premia," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 35(3), pages 510-522, July.
    9. Granqvist, Lena & Selén, Jan & Ståhlberg, Ann-Charlotte, 2002. "Mandatory Earnings-Related Insurance Rights, Human Capital and the Gender Earnings Gap in Sweden," Working Paper Series 179, Trade Union Institute for Economic Research.
    10. Dahl, Svenn-Åge & Nilsen, Øivind Anti & Vaage, Kjell, 2002. "Gender Differences in Early Retirement Behaviour," Working Papers in Economics 02/02, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
    11. Kathleen M. McGarry & Andrew Davenport, 1998. "Pensions and the Distribution of Wealth," NBER Chapters,in: Frontiers in the Economics of Aging, pages 463-486 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Andrietti, Vincenzo, 2000. "Occupational pension coverage in the European Union. An empirical analysis," ISER Working Paper Series 2000-14, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    13. Barrientos, Armando, 1998. "Pension reform, personal pensions and gender differences in pension coverage," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 125-137, January.
    14. Haynes, Jonathan B. & Sessions, John G., 2013. "Work now, pay later? An empirical analysis of the pension–pay trade off," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 835-843.
    15. Janet Currie, 1993. "Gender Gaps in Benefits Coverage," NBER Working Papers 4265, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. repec:eee:labchp:v:3:y:1999:i:pc:p:3143-3259 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Robert L. Clark & Joseph F. Quinn, 1999. "Effects of Pensions on Labor Markets and Retirement," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 431, Boston College Department of Economics.
    18. Morissette, Rene & Ostrovsky, Yuri, 2008. "Comment les familles et les personnes seules reagissent-elles aux licenciements? Un eclairage canadien," Direction des etudes analytiques : documents de recherche 2008304f, Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques.
    19. Kayam, Saime S. & Parkın, Mehmet Koray & Çeliktopuz, Merih, 2013. "Features that influence the exit decision from the private pension system in Turkey," MPRA Paper 50933, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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