Concept and Relevance of Income
Recently, many people criticize the traditionally accepted principles of realization, matching, and allocation. In addition, the reporting performance project in the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is willing to substitute the extant concept of net income for the unexperienced concept of comprehensive income with prohibition of recycling of other comprehensive income. On the other hand, the usefulness or relevance of net income has been repeatedly ascertained in empirical studies. It seems that accountants do not necessarily understand the common knowledge in academic circles correctly. This awareness is one of the motives of this paper to review the empirical evidence on relevance of net income. This paper investigates again to confirm the concept of net income by comparing it with similar concepts, which is closely related to net income. This investigation consists of two parts. The first part in Section 2 compares cash flows with net income by focusing on accounting allocation. This comparison emphasizes the rationale for income measurement with allocation of cash flows. The second part in Section 3 compares comprehensive income with net income. By focusing on the difference between the two (i.e. other comprehensive income ), this paper examines, though indirectly, the essential meaning of net income excluding other comprehensive income. The review in this paper deduces the following conclusion. First, although accruals are criticized for being affected by managerial discretion, they are in fact valuable sources of information for investors . This is a commonly accepted academic theory that has been confirmed repeatedly through comparison of the value relevance between earnings and cash flows. Second, we cannot find the evidence that other comprehensive income is value-relevant, though it is expected to respond to the information needs of accountants and analysts. In sum, net income characterized by realization, matching, and allocation is most useful in comparison with cash flows and comprehensive income.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2002|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033|
Web page: http://www.cirje.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp/index.html
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Nelson, Karen K. & Barth, Mary E. & Cram, Donald, 2001. "Accruals and the Prediction of Future Cash Flows," Research Papers 1594r, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
- Venkatachalam, Mohan, 1996. "Value-relevance of banks' derivatives disclosures," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1-3), pages 327-355, October.
- Shin, Hyun-Han & Soenen, Luc, 1999. "Exposure to currency risk by US multinational corporations," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 195-207, March.
- Andreas Charitou & Nikos Vafeas, 1998. "The Association Between Operating Cash Flows and Dividend Changes: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(1&2), pages 225-249.
- Subramanyam, K. R., 1996. "The pricing of discretionary accruals," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1-3), pages 249-281, October.
- Neil Garrod, 1998. "Investor Response to Cash Flow Information," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(5&6), pages 613-630.
- Barth, Mary E. & Beaver, William H. & Landsman, Wayne R., 1992. "The market valuation implications of net periodic pension cost components," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 27-62, March.
- Stuart McLeay & John Kassab & Mahmoud Helan, 1997. "The Incremental Information Content of Accruals: Evidence Based on the Exponential Smoothing of Levels and Trends in Pre-Tax Earnings, Funds Flow and Cash Flow," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(7&8), pages 1147-1167.
- Sloan, Richard G., 1999. "Evaluating the reliability of current value estimates1," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1-3), pages 193-200, January.
- Eccher, Elizabeth A. & Ramesh, K. & Thiagarajan, S. Ramu, 1996. "Fair value disclosures by bank holding companies," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1-3), pages 79-117, October.
- Muller III, Karl A., 1999. "An examination of the voluntary recognition of acquired brand names in the United Kingdom1," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1-3), pages 179-191, January.
- Martin Feldstein & Stephanie Seligman, 1980.
"Pension Funding, Share Prices, and National Saving,"
NBER Working Papers
0509, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Feldstein, Martin & Seligman, Stephanie, 1981. "Pension Funding, Share Prices, and National Savings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 36(4), pages 801-824, September.
- Ahmed, Anwer S. & Takeda, Carolyn, 1995. "Stock market valuation of gains and losses on commercial banks' investment securities An empirical analysis," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 207-225, September.
- Chen, Al Y. S. & Comiskey, Eugene E. & Mulford, Charles W., 1990. "Foreign currency translation and analyst forecast dispersion: Examining the effects of statement of financial accounting standards no. 52," Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 239-256.
- Seow, Gim S & Tam, Kinsun, 2002. "The Usefulness of Derivative-Related Accounting Disclosures," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 273-291, May.
- Martin, Linda J. & Henderson, Glenn V., 1983. "On Bond Ratings and Pension Obligations: A Note," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(04), pages 463-470, December.
- Chauvin, Keith W. & Hirschey, Mark, 1994. "Goodwill, profitability, and the market value of the firm," Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 159-180.
- Sharpe, Ian G. & Walker, R.G, 1975. "Asset Revaluations and Stock Market Prices," Working Papers 2, University of Sydney, School of Economics.
- Dechow, Patricia M. & Kothari, S. P. & L. Watts, Ross, 1998. "The relation between earnings and cash flows," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 133-168, May.
- Dechow, Patricia M., 1994. "Accounting earnings and cash flows as measures of firm performance : The role of accounting accruals," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 3-42, July.
- Carey, Mark, 1995. "Partial market value accounting, bank capital volatility, and bank risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 607-622, June.
- Aboody, David & Barth, Mary E. & Kasznik, Ron, 1999. "Revaluations of fixed assets and future firm performance: Evidence from the UK1," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1-3), pages 149-178, January.
- Vuong, Quang H, 1989. "Likelihood Ratio Tests for Model Selection and Non-nested Hypotheses," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 307-333, March.
- Bartov, Eli & Bodnar, Gordon M, 1994. " Firm Valuation, Earnings Expectations, and the Exchange-Rate Exposure Effect," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1755-1785, December.
- Dhaliwal, Dan & Subramanyam, K. R. & Trezevant, Robert, 1999. "Is comprehensive income superior to net income as a measure of firm performance?1," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1-3), pages 43-67, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:tky:fseres:2002cf171. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (CIRJE administrative office)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.