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Travel Time Budget – Decomposition of the Worldwide Mean

Listed author(s):
  • Iragaël Joly


    (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

The paper is concerned with the travel activity and more specifically the urban travel time during a day. This individual mean travel time budget (TTB) has been hypothesised by Zahavi (1980) to be a constant amount of time close to 1 hour per day. This TTB seems to be stable between different cities and between different time periods. Under the TTB stability hypothesis, travel time-savings are totally reinvested in transport. This reinvestment mechanism could then explain the urban sprawl, and give to the increasing speeds all the responsibilities of the “urban transport diseases”. However, the TTB stability seems to be valid at the world aggregate level only. The paper proposes to explore finer scales of observation of the TTB: from the aggregate to the desaggregate levels of observation. First, a worldwide comparison of the mean TTB of 100 cities is produced. Second a hazard based model for the individual TTB of the French city of Lyon is constructed. Hence, two opposite urban models appear at the aggregate level: an extensive urban model of which development is based on extensive consumption of space and time resources, and an intensive urban model restricting its spatial and temporal extension. At the desaggregate level, the analysis identifies the relationships between the individual TTB and the socio-economic variables and the mobility and activities attributes. Finally, the model seems to indicate that the traditional hypothesis of the minimisation of the temporal costs of travel is unsuitable to model the behaviour of the whole urban population.

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Paper provided by HAL in its series Post-Print with number halshs-00087433.

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Date of creation: 2004
Publication status: Published in IATUR, ISTAT. Italian National Statistical Institute. Time Use: What's New in Methodology and Application Fields?, 27-29 October 2004, Rome, Italy, 2004, 23 p., 2004
Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00087433
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  1. Nam, Doohee & Mannering, Fred, 2000. "An exploratory hazard-based analysis of highway incident duration," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 85-102, February.
  2. Iragaël Joly, 2004. "The link between travel Time Budget and Speed: a Key relationship for urban space-time dynamics," Post-Print halshs-00087451, HAL.
  3. Meyer, Bruce D, 1990. "Unemployment Insurance and Unemployment Spells," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(4), pages 757-782, July.
  4. Gordon, Peter & Kumar, Ajay & Richardson, Harry W., 1989. "The influence of metropolitan spatial structure on commuting time," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 138-151, September.
  5. David Levinson & Ajay Kumar, 1995. "Temporal Variations on Allocation of Time," Working Papers 199501, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
  6. Kenworthy, Jeffrey R. & Laube, Felix B., 1999. "Patterns of automobile dependence in cities: an international overview of key physical and economic dimensions with some implications for urban policy," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 33(7-8), pages 691-723.
  7. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Chen, Cynthia, 2004. "TTB or not TTB, that is the question: a review and analysis of the empirical literature on travel time (and money) budgets," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 38(9-10), pages 643-675.
  8. Schafer, Andreas & Victor, David G., 2000. "The future mobility of the world population," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 171-205, April.
  9. Timmermans, Harry & van der Waerden, Peter & Alves, Mario & Polak, John & Ellis, Scott & Harvey, Andrew S. & Kurose, Shigeyuki & Zandee, Rianne, 2002. "Time allocation in urban and transport settings: an international, inter-urban perspective," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 79-93, April.
  10. Gilbert, Carol C. S., 1992. "A duration model of automobile ownership," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 97-114, April.
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