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Understanding Travel Time Expenditures Around the World: Exploring the Notion of a Travel Time Frontier


  • Amlan Banerjee
  • Xin Ye
  • Ram Pendyala



Travel behavior researchers have been intrigued by the amount of time that people allocate to travel in a day, i.e., the daily travel time expenditure, commonly referred to as a “travel time budget”. Explorations into the notion of a travel time budget have once again resurfaced in the context of activity-based and time use research in travel behavior modeling. This paper revisits the issue by developing the notion of a travel time frontier (TTF) that is distinct from the actual travel time expenditure or budget of an individual. The TTF is defined in this paper as an intrinsic maximum amount of time that people are willing to allocate for travel. It is treated as an unobserved frontier that influences the actual travel time expenditure measured in travel surveys. Using travel survey datasets from around the world (i.e., US, Switzerland and India), this paper sheds new light on daily travel time expenditures by modeling the unobserved TTF and comparing these frontiers across international contexts. The stochastic frontier modeling methodology is employed to model the unobserved TTF as a production frontier. Separate models are estimated for commuter and non-commuter samples to recognize the differing constraints between these market segments. Comparisons across the international contexts show considerable differences in average unobserved TTF values. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Suggested Citation

  • Amlan Banerjee & Xin Ye & Ram Pendyala, 2007. "Understanding Travel Time Expenditures Around the World: Exploring the Notion of a Travel Time Frontier," Transportation, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 51-65, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:transp:v:34:y:2007:i:1:p:51-65
    DOI: 10.1007/s11116-006-0004-6

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Salomon, Ilan, 2001. "How derived is the demand for travel? Some conceptual and measurement considerations," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 695-719, September.
    2. David Levinson & Ajay Kumar, 1995. "Temporal Variations on Allocation of Time," Working Papers 199501, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
    3. David Levinson & Yao Wu, 2005. "The rational locator reexamined: Are travel times still stable?," Transportation, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 187-202, March.
    4. Yao Wu & David Levinson, 2005. "The Rational Locator Reexamined," Working Papers 200503, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
    5. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Chen, Cynthia, 2004. "TTB or not TTB, that is the question: a review and analysis of the empirical literature on travel time (and money) budgets," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 38(9-10), pages 643-675.
    6. Schafer, Andreas & Victor, David G., 2000. "The future mobility of the world population," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 171-205, April.
    7. Aigner, Dennis & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Peter, 1977. "Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 21-37, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:kap:transp:v:44:y:2017:i:5:d:10.1007_s11116-016-9694-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Manoj, M. & Verma, Ashish, 2015. "Activity–travel behaviour of non-workers from Bangalore City in India," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 400-424.
    3. Holz-Rau, Christian & Scheiner, Joachim, 2011. "Safety and travel time in cost-benefit analysis: A sensitivity analysis for North Rhine-Westphalia," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 336-346, March.
    4. Timo Ohnmacht & Konrad Götz & Helmut Schad, 2009. "Leisure mobility styles in Swiss conurbations: construction and empirical analysis," Transportation, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 243-265, March.
    5. repec:eee:rensus:v:77:y:2017:i:c:p:327-335 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Ram Pendyala & Ryuichi Kitamura, 2007. "The rapid motorization of asia: implications for the future," Transportation, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 275-279, May.
    7. M. Manoj & Ashish Verma, 2017. "A structural equation model based analysis of non-workers’ activity-travel behaviour from a city of a developing country," Transportation, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 241-269, March.
    8. Pinjari, Abdul Rawoof & Augustin, Bertho & Sivaraman, Vijayaraghavan & Faghih Imani, Ahmadreza & Eluru, Naveen & Pendyala, Ram M., 2016. "Stochastic frontier estimation of budgets for Kuhn–Tucker demand systems: Application to activity time-use analysis," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 117-133.


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