IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Grouping Travelers on the Basis of their Different Car and Transit Levels of Use


  • Diana, Marco
  • Mokhtarian, Patricia L


Market segmentation studies in travel behavior research are ordinarily based on socioeconomic characteristics and personality traits. This study explores the usefulness of a different approach, where the actual overall mobility levels across different ground transportation modes, along with desired changes in the use of cars and transit, are used as clustering variables. Using a given mode can in fact influence the personal representation of that mode, which in turn has been proven to be a key element in transport behaviours. We form such multimodality-based clusters from two field studies, one involving employees of the French transportation research institute INRETS and the other a representative sample of residents of the US San Francisco Bay Area. We find that strong users of a given mode would like to bring more balance to their ‘‘modal consumptions’’ by decreasing the use of this mode more than the average, and increasing the use of the alternative mode. However, concerning ground transport travel budgets, the desire to travel more (or less) overall seems less strongly related to the composition of the modal balance. The US dataset shows also a greater latent demand for travel than the French one. Socioeconomic characteristics of the clusters could not explain the patterns that were found, confirming the importance of taking into account multimodality issues in travel behavior research. Some policy implications from these findings are finally reported.

Suggested Citation

  • Diana, Marco & Mokhtarian, Patricia L, 2009. "Grouping Travelers on the Basis of their Different Car and Transit Levels of Use," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt6dr2j387, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt6dr2j387

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:;origin=repeccitec
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Chen, Cynthia, 2004. "TTB or not TTB, that is the question: a review and analysis of the empirical literature on travel time (and money) budgets," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 38(9-10), pages 643-675.
    2. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Salomon, Ilan, 2001. "How derived is the demand for travel? Some conceptual and measurement considerations," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 695-719, September.
    3. Sangho Choo & Gustavo Collantes & Patricia Mokhtarian, 2005. "Wanting to travel, more or less: Exploring the determinants of the deficit and surfeit of personal travel," Transportation, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 135-164, March.
    4. Collantes, Gustavo O. & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 2007. "Subjective assessments of personal mobility: What makes the difference between a little and a lot?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 181-192, May.
    5. Guiver, J.W., 2007. "Modal talk: Discourse analysis of how people talk about bus and car travel," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 233-248, March.
    6. Marco Diana & Tingting Song & Knut Wittkowski, 2009. "Studying travel-related individual assessments and desires by combining hierarchically structured ordinal variables," Transportation, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 187-206, March.
    7. P N O'Farrell & J Markham, 1974. "Commuter perceptions of public transport work journeys," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 6(1), pages 79-100, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Molin, Eric & Mokhtarian, Patricia & Kroesen, Maarten, 2016. "Multimodal travel groups and attitudes: A latent class cluster analysis of Dutch travelers," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 14-29.
    2. Vij, Akshay & Gorripaty, Sreeta & Walker, Joan L., 2017. "From trend spotting to trend ’splaining: Understanding modal preference shifts in the San Francisco Bay Area," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 238-258.
    3. Creemers, Lieve & Tormans, Hans & Bellemans, Tom & Janssens, Davy & Wets, Geert & Cools, Mario, 2015. "Knowledge of the concept Light Rail Transit: Exploring its relevance and identification of the determinants of various knowledge levels," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 31-43.
    4. Heinen, Eva & Chatterjee, Kiron, 2015. "The same mode again? An exploration of mode choice variability in Great Britain using the National Travel Survey," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 266-282.
    5. Hebes, Paul & Menge, Julius & Lenz, Barbara, 2013. "Service-related traffic: An analysis of the influence of firms on travel behaviour," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 43-53.
    6. repec:eee:transa:v:104:y:2017:i:c:p:221-237 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Diana, Marco & Pronello, Cristina, 2010. "Traveler segmentation strategy with nominal variables through correspondence analysis," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 183-190, May.
    8. Abenoza, Roberto F. & Cats, Oded & Susilo, Yusak O., 2017. "Travel satisfaction with public transport: Determinants, user classes, regional disparities and their evolution," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 64-84.
    9. repec:kap:transp:v:45:y:2018:i:3:d:10.1007_s11116-016-9751-1 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    UCD-ITS-RP-09-18; Engineering;


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt6dr2j387. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.