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The impacts of household structure on the individual stochastic travel and out of-home activity time budgets



The amount of time individuals and households spend in travelling and in out-of-door-activities can be seen as a result of complex daily interactions between household members, influenced by opportunities and constraints which vary from day to day. Extending the deterministic concept of travel time budget to a stochastic term, and applying a Stochastic Frontier Model to a dataset from the 2004 UK National Travel Survey, this study examines the hidden stochastic limit and the variations of the individual and household travel time and out-of-home activity duration– concepts associated with travel time budget. The results show that most individuals may not have reached the limit of their ability to travel and may still be able to spend further time in travel activities. The analysis of the model outcomes and distribution tests show that among a range of employment statuses, only full-time workers’ out-of-home time expenditure has reached its limit. Also observed is the effect of having children in the household: children reduce the flexibility of hidden constraints of adult household members’ out-of-home time, thus reducing their ability to be further engaged with out-of-home activities. Even when out-of-home trips are taken into account in the analysis, the model shows that the dependent children’s in-home responsibility reduces the ability of an individual to travel to and to be engaged with out-of-home activities. This study also suggests that, compared with the individual travel time spent, the individual out-of-home time expenditure may perform as a better budget indicator in drawing the constraints of individual space-time prisms.

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  • Susilo, Yusak O. & Avineri, Erel, 2013. "The impacts of household structure on the individual stochastic travel and out of-home activity time budgets," Working papers in Transport Economics 2013:19, CTS - Centre for Transport Studies Stockholm (KTH and VTI).
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:ctswps:2013_019
    Note: Full bibliographic details: Previously published in 43rd Universities Transport Study Group Conference, Milton Keynes, UK, 5th-7th January 2011. And in: TRB 91st Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers DVD, 2012, Paper no: 12-0329. To be published in: Journal of Advanced Transportation, Published online 12 JUN 2013, DOI information: 10.1002/atr.1234

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kitamura, Ryuichi & Yamamoto, Toshiyuki & Susilo, Yusak O. & Axhausen, Kay W., 2006. "How routine is a routine? An analysis of the day-to-day variability in prism vertex location," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 259-279, March.
    2. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Salomon, Ilan, 2001. "How derived is the demand for travel? Some conceptual and measurement considerations," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 695-719, September.
    3. Toshiyuki Yamamoto & Ryuichi Kitamura & Ram M Pendyala, 2004. "Comparative analysis of time - space prism vertices for out-of-home activity engagement on working and nonworking days," Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 31(2), pages 235-250, March.
    4. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Chen, Cynthia, 2004. "TTB or not TTB, that is the question: a review and analysis of the empirical literature on travel time (and money) budgets," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 38(9-10), pages 643-675.
    5. Schafer, Andreas & Victor, David G., 2000. "The future mobility of the world population," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 171-205, April.
    6. Chandra Bhat & Ram Pendyala, 2005. "Modeling intra-household interactions and group decision-making," Transportation, Springer, vol. 32(5), pages 443-448, September.
    7. Susilo, Yusak O. & Kitamura, Ryuichi, 2008. "Structural changes in commuters' daily travel: The case of auto and transit commuters in the Osaka metropolitan area of Japan, 1980-2000," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 95-115, January.
    8. Zhang, Junyi & Timmermans, Harry J. P. & Borgers, Aloys, 2005. "A model of household task allocation and time use," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 81-95, January.
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    More about this item


    Travel time budget; Household structure; Stochastic frontier model; UK national travel survey;

    JEL classification:

    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • R41 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Travel Time; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise

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