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Combining economics and psychology: Does CO2 framing strengthen pro-environmental behaviors?


  • Charles Collet

    (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Pascal Gastineau

    (AME-SPLOTT - Systèmes Productifs, Logistique, Organisation des Transports et Travail - Université Gustave Eiffel)

  • Benoit Chèze

    (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles)

  • Pierre-Alexandre Mahieu

    (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - Nantes Univ - IAE Nantes - Nantes Université - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Nantes - Nantes Université - pôle Sociétés - Nantes Univ - Nantes Université)

  • Frederic Martinez

    (AME-DCM - Dynamiques des changements de mobilité - Université de Lyon - Université Gustave Eiffel)


This paper considers valence-based framing, i.e. a description of equivalent outcomes in either a positive or negative light, in order to reduce transport-related CO2 emissions. This nudge is easier to implement than more traditional tools, such as taxation, and does not rely on the stringent assumption that individuals are fully rational. The findings from a discrete choice experiment focusing on long-distance travel choice are reported herein. Results indicate that a loss framing on CO2 emissions significantly increases the respondents' pro-environmental behaviors. Moreover, it is shown that the magnitude of the framing effect depends on individuals' motivational orientation, and that preferences are sensitive to individuals' psychological factors (i.e. preference for the future and environmental self-identity).

Suggested Citation

  • Charles Collet & Pascal Gastineau & Benoit Chèze & Pierre-Alexandre Mahieu & Frederic Martinez, 2022. "Combining economics and psychology: Does CO2 framing strengthen pro-environmental behaviors?," CIRED Working Papers hal-03321706, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:ciredw:hal-03321706
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item


    Framing effect; Discrete choice experiment; Pro-environmental behavior; Psychological factors;
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