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Ajustes del mercado laboral ante cambios en el salario mínimo: La experiencia de la década de 2000

La aplicación del salario mínimo (SM) en el Perú, conocido desde 1985 como remuneración mínima vital (RMV), se justifica como una herramienta para reducir la desigualdad laboral. Sin embargo, este estudio -que evalúa los efectos del SM sobre dos importantes variables del mercado laboral: ingresos y empleo en la década del 2000- muestra un piso salarial peruano que ha variado en la misma dirección que la tasa de incumplimiento; es decir, mientras más elevada fue la RMV respecto del salario promedio, más se incumplió. El SM no eleva las remuneraciones de los que ganan menos porque no tiene efecto sobre aquellos que ganan por debajo de este piso salarial, ni sobre los trabajadores del sector informal. Sobre el empleo, sus efectos se concentran en el sector informal y en trabajadores que ganan por encima del SM. No se encuentra evidencia de un impacto general en los salarios causado por el crecimiento del SM –llamado efecto “faro”–; por el contrario, estos efectos tienden a ser bastante focalizados. Tampoco hay efectos significativos sobre la probabilidad de mantener el empleo para los trabajadores que ganan alrededor del salario mínimo; sin embargo, tendrá un efecto positivo para los asalariados informales. Este efecto es de tal magnitud que impacta al grupo de asalariados como conjunto. De los resultados, se concluye que la RMV no es un instrumento efectivo para promover la inclusión social.

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Paper provided by Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE) in its series Documentos de Investigación with number dt63.

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Length: 79 pages
Date of creation: 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:gad:doctra:dt63
Note: Documento de investigación, 63
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  1. Brown, Charles & Gilroy, Curtis & Kohen, Andrew, 1982. "The Effect of the Minimum Wage on Employment and Unemployment," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 20(2), pages 487-528, June.
  2. Bell, Linda A, 1997. "The Impact of Minimum Wages in Mexico and Colombia," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(3), pages S102-35, July.
  3. Céspedes, Nikita, 2006. "Efectos del salario mínimo en el mercado laboral peruano," Revista Estudios Económicos, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú, issue 13.
  4. David Card & Alan B. Krueger, 1993. "Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania," NBER Working Papers 4509, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Del Valle, Marielle, 2009. "Impacto del ajuste de la Remuneración Mínima Vital sobre el empleo y la informalidad," Revista Estudios Económicos, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú, issue 16, pages 83-102.
  6. Charles Brown & Curtis Gilroy & Andrew Kohen, 1982. "The Effect of the Minimum Wage on Employment and Unemployment: A Survey," NBER Working Papers 0846, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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