IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/fip/fedgfe/2011-12.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Litigation risk, strategic disclosure and the underpricing of initial public offerings

Author

Listed:
  • Kathleen Weiss Hanley
  • Gerard Hoberg

Abstract

Using word content analysis on the time-series of IPO prospectuses, we find evidence that issuers trade off underpricing and strategic disclosure as potential hedges against litigation risk. This tradeoff explains a significant fraction of the variation in prospectus revision patterns, IPO underpricing, the partial adjustment phenomenon, and litigation outcomes. We find that strong disclosure is an effective hedge against all lawsuits. Underpricing, however, is an effective hedge only against the incidence of Section 11 lawsuits, those lawsuits which are most damaging to the underwriter. Underwriters who fail to adequately hedge litigation risk experience economically large penalties including loss of market share.

Suggested Citation

  • Kathleen Weiss Hanley & Gerard Hoberg, 2011. "Litigation risk, strategic disclosure and the underpricing of initial public offerings," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2011-12, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (US).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2011-12
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/2011/201112/201112abs.html
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/2011/201112/201112pap.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Tinic, Seha M, 1988. " Anatomy of Initial Public Offerings of Common Stock," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(4), pages 789-822, September.
    2. Logue, Dennis E., 1973. "On the Pricing of Unseasoned Equity Issues: 1965–1969," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(01), pages 91-103, January.
    3. Ljungqvist, Alexander P. & Wilhelm, William Jr., 2002. "IPO allocations: discriminatory or discretionary?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 167-201, August.
    4. repec:bla:joares:v:32:y:1994:i:1:p:38-60 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Michelle Lowry & G. William Schwert, 2002. "IPO Market Cycles: Bubbles or Sequential Learning?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(3), pages 1171-1200, June.
    6. Bradley, Daniel J. & Jordan, Bradford D., 2002. "Partial Adjustment to Public Information and IPO Underpricing," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 37(04), pages 595-616, December.
    7. Maksimovic, Vojislav & Pichler, Pegaret, 2001. "Technological Innovation and Initial Public Offerings," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(2), pages 459-494.
    8. Tim Jenkinson & Howard Jones, 2004. "Bids and Allocations in European IPO Bookbuilding," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(5), pages 2309-2338, October.
    9. Agnes Cheng, C.S. & He Huang, Henry & Li, Yinghua & Lobo, Gerald, 2010. "Institutional monitoring through shareholder litigation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(3), pages 356-383, March.
    10. Kathleen Weiss Hanley, 2010. "The Information Content of IPO Prospectuses," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(7), pages 2821-2864, July.
    11. Carter, Richard B & Manaster, Steven, 1990. " Initial Public Offerings and Underwriter Reputation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1045-1067, September.
    12. Aggrawal, Reena & Prabhala, Nagpurnanand & Puri, Manju, 2002. "Institutional Allocation in Initial Public Offerings: Empirical Evidence," Research Papers 1747, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    13. Edelen, Roger M. & Kadlec, Gregory B., 2005. "Issuer surplus and the partial adjustment of IPO prices to public information," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 347-373, August.
    14. Jay R. Ritter & Ivo Welch, 2002. "A Review of IPO Activity, Pricing, and Allocations," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1795-1828, August.
    15. Tim Loughran & Jay R. Ritter, 2002. "Why Don't Issuers Get Upset About Leaving Money on the Table in IPOs?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(2), pages 413-444, March.
    16. Francesca Cornelli & David Goldreich, 2003. "Bookbuilding: How Informative Is the Order Book?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(4), pages 1415-1443, August.
    17. Kenji Kutsuna & Janet Kiholm Smith & Richard L. Smith, 2009. "Public Information, IPO Price Formation, and Long-Run Returns: Japanese Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(1), pages 505-546, February.
    18. Reena Aggarwal & Nagpurnanand R. Prabhala & Manju Puri, 2002. "Institutional Allocation in Initial Public Offerings: Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(3), pages 1421-1442, June.
    19. Lowry, Michelle, 2009. "Discussion of [`]shareholder litigation and changes in disclosure behavior'," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1-2), pages 157-159, March.
    20. Rogers, Jonathan L. & Van Buskirk, Andrew, 2009. "Shareholder litigation and changes in disclosure behavior," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1-2), pages 136-156, March.
    21. Hanley, Kathleen Weiss, 1993. "The underpricing of initial public offerings and the partial adjustment phenomenon," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 231-250, October.
    22. Bhattacharya Sudipto & Chiesa Gabriella, 1995. "Proprietary Information, Financial Intermediation, and Research Incentives," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 328-357, October.
    23. Laura Casares Field & Jonathan M. Karpoff, 2002. "Takeover Defenses of IPO Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 1857-1889, October.
    24. Kerins, Frank & Kutsuna, Kenji & Smith, Richard, 2007. "Why are IPOs underpriced? Evidence from Japan's hybrid auction-method offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(3), pages 637-666, September.
    25. Skinner, Douglas J., 1997. "Earnings disclosures and stockholder lawsuits," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 249-282, November.
    26. Hughes, Patricia J & Thakor, Anjan V, 1992. "Litigation Risk, Intermediation, and the Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 5(4), pages 709-742.
    27. Tim Loughran & Jay Ritter, 2004. "Why Has IPO Underpricing Changed Over Time?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 33(3), Fall.
    28. Paul C. Tetlock & Maytal Saar-Tsechansky & Sofus Macskassy, 2008. "More Than Words: Quantifying Language to Measure Firms' Fundamentals," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(3), pages 1437-1467, June.
    29. Sherman, Ann E. & Titman, Sheridan, 2002. "Building the IPO order book: underpricing and participation limits with costly information," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 3-29, July.
    30. repec:bla:joares:v:32:y:1994:i:2:p:137-164 is not listed on IDEAS
    31. Alexander Ljungqvist & Felicia Marston & William J. Wilhelm, 2006. "Competing for Securities Underwriting Mandates: Banking Relationships and Analyst Recommendations," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(1), pages 301-340, February.
    32. Reena Aggarwal & Nagpurnanand R. Prabhala & Manju Puri, 2002. "Institutional Allocation In Initial Public Offerings: Empirical Evidence," NBER Working Papers 9070, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    33. Darrough, Masako N. & Stoughton, Neal M., 1990. "Financial disclosure policy in an entry game," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1-3), pages 219-243, January.
    34. Lowry, Michelle & Shu, Susan, 2002. "Litigation risk and IPO underpricing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 309-335, September.
    35. Gerard Hoberg & Gordon Phillips, 2010. "Product Market Synergies and Competition in Mergers and Acquisitions: A Text-Based Analysis," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(10), pages 3773-3811, October.
    36. Paul C. Tetlock, 2007. "Giving Content to Investor Sentiment: The Role of Media in the Stock Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(3), pages 1139-1168, June.
    37. Tracy Yue Wang & Andrew Winton & Xiaoyun Yu, 2010. "Corporate Fraud and Business Conditions: Evidence from IPOs," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(6), pages 2255-2292, December.
    38. Werner Antweiler & Murray Z. Frank, 2004. "Is All That Talk Just Noise? The Information Content of Internet Stock Message Boards," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(3), pages 1259-1294, June.
    39. Dunbar, Craig G., 1998. "The Choice between Firm-Commitment and Best-Efforts Offering Methods in IPOs: The Effect of Unsuccessful Offers," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 60-90, January.
    40. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Spindt, Paul A., 1989. "How investment bankers determine the offer price and allocation of new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 343-361.
    41. Hanley, Kathleen Weiss & Wilhelm Jr., William J., 1995. "Evidence on the strategic allocation of initial public offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 239-257, February.
    42. Megginson, William L & Weiss, Kathleen A, 1991. " Venture Capitalist Certification in Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(3), pages 879-903, July.
    43. S. P. Kothari & Susan Shu & Peter D. Wysocki, 2009. "Do Managers Withhold Bad News?," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1), pages 241-276, March.
    44. Tim Loughran & Bill Mcdonald, 2011. "When Is a Liability Not a Liability? Textual Analysis, Dictionaries, and 10‐Ks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 66(1), pages 35-65, February.
    45. Field, Laura & Lowry, Michelle & Shu, Susan, 2005. "Does disclosure deter or trigger litigation?," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 487-507, September.
    46. Healy, Paul M. & Palepu, Krishna G., 2001. "Information asymmetry, corporate disclosure, and the capital markets: A review of the empirical disclosure literature," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1-3), pages 405-440, September.
    47. Philip D. Drake & Michael R. Vetsuypens, 1993. "IPO Underpricing and Insurance Against Legal Liability," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 22(1), Spring.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Rui Ding, 2016. "Disclosure of Downside Risk and Investors' Use of Qualitative Information: Evidence from the IPO Prospectus's Risk Factor Section," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 73-126, March.
    2. Loughran, Tim & McDonald, Bill, 2013. "IPO first-day returns, offer price revisions, volatility, and form S-1 language," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 307-326.
    3. Jones, Steven L. & Yeoman, John C., 2014. "Initial uncertainty and the risk of setting a fixed-offer price: Implications for the pricing of bookbuilt and best-efforts IPOs," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 194-215.
    4. repec:eee:finmar:v:40:y:2018:i:c:p:60-74 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Lauren Cohen & Umit Gurun & Scott Duke Kominers, 2014. "Patent Trolls: Evidence from Targeted Firms," NBER Working Papers 20322, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Bajo, Emanuele & Chemmanur, Thomas J. & Simonyan, Karen & Tehranian, Hassan, 2016. "Underwriter networks, investor attention, and initial public offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(2), pages 376-408.
    7. Aissia, Dorsaf Ben, 2014. "IPO first-day returns: Skewness preference, investor sentiment and uncertainty underlying factors," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 148-154.
    8. repec:eee:quaeco:v:67:y:2018:i:c:p:255-272 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Chouliaras, Andreas, 2015. "Institutional Investors, Annual Reports, Textual Analysis and Stock Returns: Evidence from SEC EDGAR 10-K and 13-F Forms," MPRA Paper 65875, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Hao, Xiangchao & Shi, Jing & Yang, Jian, 2014. "The differential impact of the bank–firm relationship on IPO underpricing: evidence from China," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 207-232.
    11. Acosta, Miguel, 2015. "FOMC Responses to Calls for Transparency," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2015-60, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (US).
    12. Stefano Paleari & Andrea Signori & Silvio Vismara, 2014. "How Do Underwriters Select Peers When Valuing IPOs?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 43(4), pages 731-755, December.
    13. James Cicon, 2017. "Say it again Sam: the information content of corporate conference calls," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 57-81, January.
    14. Reddy, K. Srinivasa, 2011. "The aftermarket pricing performance of initial public offers: Insights from India," MPRA Paper 62885, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2013.
    15. repec:wsi:qjfxxx:v:07:y:2017:i:01:n:s2010139216500208 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Fernando, Chitru S. & Gatchev, Vladimir A. & May, Anthony D. & Megginson, William L., 2015. "Prestige without purpose? Reputation, differentiation, and pricing in U.S. equity underwriting," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 41-63.
    17. Adair Morse & Wei Wang & Serena Wu, 2016. "Executive Lawyers: Gatekeepers or Strategic Officers?," NBER Working Papers 22597, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Ilias Anthopoulos & Christos N.Pitelis, "undated". "The Nature, Performance, Economic Impact and Regulation of Investment Banking," Working papers wpaper137, Financialisation, Economy, Society & Sustainable Development (FESSUD) Project.
    19. Gong, B., 2018. "Interstate Competition in Agriculture: Cheer or Fear? Evidence from the United States and China," 2018 Conference, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia 277462, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    20. Kiebzak, Stephen & Rafert, Greg & Tucker, Catherine E., 2016. "The effect of patent litigation and patent assertion entities on entrepreneurial activity," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 218-231.
    21. Girardi, Giulio & Hanley, Kathleen Weiss & Nikolova, Stanislava & Pelizzon, Loriana & Getmansky, Mila, 2018. "Portfolio similarity and asset liquidation in the insurance industry," SAFE Working Paper Series 224, Research Center SAFE - Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe, Goethe University Frankfurt.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Going public (Securities) ; Securities ; Disclosure of information ; Risk;

    JEL classification:

    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • K22 - Law and Economics - - Regulation and Business Law - - - Business and Securities Law

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2011-12. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (FRB Librarian). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/frbgvus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.