Bids and Allocations in European IPO Bookbuilding
This Paper uses evidence from a dataset of 27 European IPOs to analyse how investors bid and the factors that influence their allocations. We have the complete books for these deals – amounting to 5540 bids – and so can analyse directly how bids and allocations are related. All these deals are private sector IPOs where the bookrunner was a leading European investment bank. We make use of a unique ranking of investor quality, associated with the likelihood of flipping the IPO, as produced by a group of US and European investment banks. We find that 'high quality' investors are consistently favoured in allocation and in out-turn profits. We also find that bids submitted via the bookrunner and large bids received better pro-rata allocations and higher average profits. We find that a very small proportion of all bids submitted during the bookbuilding contain price limits – especially in hot IPOs – and, in contrast to Cornelli and Goldreich (2001), we do not find that that such bids are favoured in terms of allocation.
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- Ljungqvist, Alexander P. & Wilhelm, William Jr., 2002.
"IPO allocations: discriminatory or discretionary?,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 167-201, August.
- William Wilhelm & Alexander Ljungqvist, 2001. "IPO Allocations: Discriminatory or Discretionary?," OFRC Working Papers Series 2001fe08, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
- Ljungqvist, Alexander P. & Wilhelm Jr, William J, 2001. "IPO Allocations: Discriminatory or Discretionary?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2855, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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- Jay Ritter & Ivo Welch, 2002. "A Review of IPO Activity, Pricing and Allocations," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm258, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Apr 2002.
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- Alexander P. Ljungqvist & Tim Jenkinson & William J. Wilhelm, Jr., 2003. "Global Integration in Primary Equity Markets: The Role of U.S. Banks and U.S. Investors," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(1), pages 63-99.
- Alexander Ljungqvist & Tim Jenkinson & William Wilhelm, 2001. "Global Integration in Primary Equity Markets: The Role of U.S. Banks and U.S. Investors," OFRC Working Papers Series 2001fe06, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
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